Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2011, Article ID 537814, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/537814
Research Article

Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

Laboratory of Environmental Friendly Technology, Department of Research and Development, Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 Paralimni, Cyprus

Received 2 December 2010; Revised 20 January 2011; Accepted 2 March 2011

Academic Editor: Silvana I. Torri

Copyright © 2011 Antonis A. Zorpas and Vassilis J. Inglezakis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. Sabbah, T. Marsook, and S. Basheer, “The effect of pretreatment on anaerobic activity of olive mill wastewater using batch and continuous systems,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1947–1951, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Khoufi, F. Aloui, and S. Sayadi, “Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion,” Water Research, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 2007–2016, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. F. A. El-Gohary, M. I. Badawy, M. A. El-Khateeb, and A. S. El-Kalliny, “Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 162, no. 2-3, pp. 1536–1541, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. F. Cabrera, R. López, A. Martinez-Bordiú, E. De Dupuy Lome, and J. M. Murillo, “Land treatment of olive oil mill wastewater,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 215–225, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Cañizares, J. Lobato, R. Paz, M. A. Rodrigo, and C. Sáez, “Advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of olive-oil mills wastewater,” Chemosphere, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 832–838, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. “Agricultural Statistics, (2006),” Department of Statistics and Research, Ministry of Finance. Rebublic of Cyprus, July 2006.
  7. “Imports and Exports Statistics 1985–1999,” Department of Statistics and Research, Ministry of Finance, Cyprus, 2000.
  8. M. Gotsi, N. Kalogerakis, E. Psillakis, P. Samaras, and D. Mantzavinos, “Electrochemical oxidation of olive oil mill wastewaters,” Water Research, vol. 39, no. 17, pp. 4177–4187, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. M. Stoller, “On the effect of flocculation as pretreatment process and particle size distribution for membrane fouling reduction,” Desalination, vol. 240, no. 1–3, pp. 209–217, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Mantzavinos and N. Kalogerakis, “Treatment of olive mill effluents: part I. Organic matter degradation by chemical and biological processes—an overview,” Environment International, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 289–295, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. A. J. Fiestas Ros, “Reuse and complete treatment of vegetable water: current situation and prospects in Spain,” in Proceedings of International Conference in Olive Oil Processing Wastewater Treatment Methods, Crete, Greece, 1991.
  12. A. A. Zorpas, A. G. Vlyssides, G. A. Zorpas, P. K. Karlis, and D. Arapoglou, “Impact of thermal treatment on metal in sewage sludge from the Psittalias wastewater treatment plant, Athens, Greece,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 291–298, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. M. Zhang, G. H. Huang, L. He, and Y. P. Li, “Quality evaluation for composting products through fuzzy latent component analysis,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1132–1140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. A. A. Zorpas, A. G. Vlyssides, and M. Loizidou, “Dewatered anaerobically-stabilized primary sewage sludge composting: metal leachability and uptake by natural clinoptilolite,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 30, no. 11-12, pp. 1603–1613, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  15. E. Marinos, “Lagooning concentration of olive oil processing wastewaters,” in Proceedings of International Conference in Olive Oil Processing Wastewater Treatment Methods, pp. 165–175, Crete, Greece, 1991.
  16. G. Boari, A. Brunetti, R. Passino, and A. Rozzi, “Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill wastewaters,” Agricultural Wastes, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 161–175, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. A. Zorpas, “Sewage sludge compost evaluation in Oats, Pepper and Eggplant cultivation,” Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant - Global Science Books, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 103–109, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. Haug, Compost Engineering: Principles and Practice, Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pa, USA, 1980.
  19. A. A. Zorpas, Development of a methodology for the composting of sewage sludge using zeolite, Ph.D. thesis, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece, 1999.
  20. A. A. Zorpas, V. Stamatis, G. A. Zorpas, A. G. Vlyssides, and M. Loizidou, “Compost characteristics from sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste,” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 8, no. 3-4, pp. 154–162, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. A. Zorpas, E. Kapetanios, G. A. Zorpas et al., “Compost produced from organic fraction of municipal solid waste, primary stabilized sewage sludge and natural zeolite,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 77, no. 1–3, pp. 149–159, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. A. Zorpas, T. Constantinides, A. G. Vlyssides, I. Haralambous, and M. Loizidou, “Heavy metal uptake by natural zeolite and metals partitioning in sewage sludge compost,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 113–119, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. P. Huang, C. Dong, and Z. Tang, “Advanced chemical oxidation: its present role and potential future in hazardous waste treatment,” Waste Management, vol. 13, no. 5–7, pp. 361–377, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Swaminathan, S. Sandhya, A. C. Sophia, K. Pachhade, and Y. V. Subrahmanyam, “Decolorization and degradation of H-acid and other dyes using ferrous-hydrogen peroxide system,” Chemosphere, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 619–625, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. H. Kim, C. Park, J. Yang, and S. Kim, “Comparison of disperse and reactive dye removals by chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 112, no. 1-2, pp. 95–103, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. S. Meriç, D. Kaptan, and T. Ölmez, “Color and COD removal from wastewater containing Reactive Black 5 using Fenton's oxidation process,” Chemosphere, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 435–441, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. S. Meriç, H. Selçuk, and V. Belgiorno, “Acute toxicity removal in textile finishing wastewater by Fenton's oxidation, ozone and coagulation-flocculation processes,” Water Research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1147–1153, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. R. J. Bidga, “Consider Fenton’s chemistry for wastewater treatment,” Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 62–66, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  29. Y. W. Kang and K. Y. Hwang, “Effects of reaction conditions on the oxidation efficiency in the Fenton process,” Water Research, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2786–2790, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. R. Xu, Z. Y. Zhao, X. Y. Li, and JI. D. Gu, “Chemical oxidative degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether in aqueous solution by Fenton's reagent,” Chemosphere, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. M. Altinbas, A. F. Aydin, M. F. Sevimli, and I. Ozturk, “Advanced oxidation of biologically pretreated baker's yeast industry effluents for high recalcitrant COD and color removal,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 2229–2240, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. J. H. Fenton, “Oxidation of tartaric acid in presence of iron,” Journal of the Chemical Society, vol. 65, pp. 899–910, 1894. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. P. Murphy, W. J. Boegli, M. K. Price, and C. D. Moody, “A fenton-like reaction to neutralize formaldehyde waste solutions,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 166–169, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. H. Gau and F. S. Chang, “Improved fenton method to remove recalcitrant organics in landfill leachate,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 34, no. 7-8, pp. 455–462, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. A. Burbano, D. D. Dionysiou, M. T. Suidan, and T. L. Richardson, “Oxidation kinetics and effect of pH on the degradation of MTBE with Fenton reagent,” Water Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 107–118, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  36. M. I. Badawy, M. Y. Ghaly, and T. A. Gad-Allah, “Advanced oxidation processes for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides from wastewater,” Desalination, vol. 194, no. 1–3, pp. 166–175, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Epstein, The Science of Composting, Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pa, USA, 1996.
  38. USDA, Composting. Part 637, National Engineering Handbook, NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA, 2000.
  39. A. A. Zorpas and M. Loizidou, “Sawdust and natural zeolite as a bulking agent for improving quality of a composting product from anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 16, pp. 7545–7552, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. M. Fang, J. W. C. Wong, K. K. Ma, and M. H. Wong, “Co-composting of sewage sludge and coal fly ash: nutrient transformations,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. L. De Maeseneer, “Constructed wetlands for sludge dewatering,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 279–285, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. De Jong, “Purification of wastewater with the aid of rush or reed ponds,” in Biological Conrrol of Water Pollution, J. Tourbier and R. W. Pierson, Eds., pp. 133–139, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  43. P. F. Cooper, State of Knowledge on Reed Bed Treatmenr Systems, Water Research Centre Processes, Stevenage, UK, 1987.
  44. K. Bucksteeg, “Treatment of domestic sewage in emergent helophyte beds. German experiences and ATV Guidelines H 262,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Use of Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Conrrol, pp. 505–515, Cambridge, UK, September 1990.
  45. L. Mandi, B. Houhoum, S. Asmama, and J. Schwartzbrod, “Wastewater treatment by reed beds: an experimental approach,” Water Research, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 2009–2016, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. M. Haslam, “Some aspects of the life history and autecology of Phragmites communis Trin.: a review,” Polish Archives of Hydrobiology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 79–100, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  47. C. Den Hartog, J. Květ, and H. Sukopp, “Reed. A common species in decline,” Aquatic Botany, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Lienard, C. Boutin, and D. Esser, “Domestic wastewater treatment with emergent helophyte beds in France,” in Advances in Water Pollution Conrrol, pp. 183–192, Pergamon Press, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  49. R. Haberl and R. Perfler, “Nutrient removal in a reed bed system,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 23, no. 4–6, pp. 729–737, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Brix and H. H. Schiereup, “Danish experience with sewage treatment in wetlands,” in Compte rendu de conferences: Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural, D. A. Hammer, Ed., pp. 565–573, CRC Press, Chelsea, Mich, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  51. J. Puigagut, J. Villaseñor, J. J. Salas, E. Bécares, and J. García, “Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands in Spain for the sanitation of small communities: a comparative study,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 312–319, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Hardej and T. Ozimek, “The effect of sewage sludge flooding on growth and morphometric parameters of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel,” Ecological Engineering, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 343–350, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. H. Kadlec and R. L. Knight, Treatment Wetlands, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1996.
  54. R. G. Wetzel, “Fundamental processes within natural and constructed wetland ecosystems: Short-term vs. Longterm objectives,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, pp. 3–12, Lake Buena Vista, Fla, USA, November 2000.
  55. E. Meers, D. P. L. Rousseau, N. Blomme et al., “Tertiary treatment of the liquid fraction of pig manure with Phragmites australis,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 160, no. 1–4, pp. 15–26, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Bayley, “Nitrogen removal from domestic effluent using subsurface flow constructed wetland: influence of depth, hydraulic residence time and pre-nitrification,” in Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Wetland Systems for water Pollution Control, p. 304, Dar Es Salam, Tanzania, 2002.
  57. M. Del Bubba, L. Checchini, C. Pifferi, L. Zanieri, and L. Lepri, “Olive mill wastewater treatment by a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow (SSF-h) constructed wetland,” Annali di Chimica, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 875–887, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  58. R. L. Knight, R. H. Kadlec, and H. M. Ohlendorf, “The use of treatment wetlands for petroleum industry effluents,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 973–980, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. APHA AWWA-WPCF, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA, 10th edition, 1995.
  60. V. A. Dean, Water and Wastewater Examination Manual, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Mich, USA, 1990.
  61. A. A. Zorpas, A. G. Vlyssides, and M. Loizidou, “Physical and chemical characterization of anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge,” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 7, no. 7-8, pp. 502–508, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. A. Zorpas, A. G. Vlyssides, and G. A. Zorpas, “Metal removal from primary sewage sludge by elution with HNO solutions,” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, vol. 7, no. 11-12, pp. 681–687, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. Atanassova, P. Kefalas, and E. Psillakis, “Measuring the antioxidant activity of olive oil mill wastewater using chemiluminescence,” Environment International, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 275–280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. M. Schnitzer, Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis, USA, 9th edition, 1982.
  65. A. F. Gaudy Jr., “Colorimetric Determination of Protein and Carbohydrate,” Industrial Waste Water, vol. 7, pp. 17–22, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  66. Handbook of Reference Methods for Soil Analysis, Georgia University Station, Athens, Ga, USA, 1992.
  67. M. S. Finstein, F. C. Miller, S. T. MacGregor, and K. M. Psarianos, “The Rutgers strategy for composting: process desing and control,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Compost Recycling of Waste, Acta Horticulturae 302, pp. 75–86, Athens, Greece, March 1992.
  68. W. J. Jewell and R. M. Kabrick, “Autoheated aerobic thermophilic digestion with aeration,” Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 512–523, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  69. Y. P. Alder, E. V. Markova, and Y. V. Granovsky, The Design of Experiments to Find Optimal Conditions, Mir Publisher, Moscow, Russia, 1995.
  70. W. C. Cochran and G. M. Cox, Experimental Designs, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1957.
  71. H. El Hajjouji, N. Fakharedine, G. Ait Baddi et al., “Treatment of olive mill waste-water by aerobic biodegradation: an analytical study using gel permeation chromatography, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 18, pp. 3513–3520, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  72. F. J. Rivas, F. J. Beltrán, O. Gimeno, and J. Frades, “Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by Fenton's reagent,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1873–1880, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. A. Zorpas, D. Arapoglou, and K. Panagiotis, “Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production,” Waste Management, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  74. F. Herrera, C. Pulgarin, V. Nadtochenko, and J. Kiwi, “Accelerated photo-oxidation of concentrated p-coumaric acid in homogeneous solution. Mechanistic studies, intermediates and precursors formed in the dark,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 17, no. 1-2, pp. 141–156, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. A. Miranda, F. Galindo, A. M. Amat, and A. Arques, “Pyrylium salt-photosensitized degradation of phenolic contaminants derived from cinnamic acid with solar light correlation of the observed reactivities with fluorescence quenching,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 127–133, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. A. Miranda, F. Galindo, A. M. Amat, and A. Arques, “Pyrylium salt-photosensitised degradation of phenolic contaminants present in olive oil wastewaters with solar light Part II. Benzoic acid derivatives,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 30, no. 3-4, pp. 437–444, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. A. Miranda, M. L. Marín, A. M. Amat, A. Arques, and S. Seguí, “Pyrylium salt-photosensitized degradation of phenolic contaminants present in olive oil wastewater with solar light Part III. Tyrosol and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 167–174, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. M. Amat, A. Arques, H. Beneyto, A. García, M. A. Miranda, and S. Seguí, “Ozonisation coupled with biological degradation for treatment of phenolic pollutants: a mechanistically based study,” Chemosphere, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 79–86, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  79. W. Gernjak, T. Krutzler, A. Glaser et al., “Photo-fenton treatment of water containing natural phenolic pollutants,” Chemosphere, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. Mantzavinos, “Removal of cinnamic acid derivatives from aqueous effluents by fenton and fenton-like processes as an alternative to direct biological treatment,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 211–221, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. Mantzavinos, “Removal of benzoic acid derivatives from aqueous effluents by the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide,” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. G. Kapetanios, M. Loizidou, and G. Valkanas, “Compost production from Greek domestic refuse,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 13–16, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. Parvaresh, M. R. Shahmansouri, and H. Alidadi, “Determination of Carbon/Nitrogen ratio and heavy metals in bulking agents used for sewage composting,” Iranian Journal of Public Health, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 20–23, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  84. E. I. Jimenez and V. P. Garcia, “Composting of domestic refuse and sewage sludge. II. Evolution of carbon and some “humification” indexes,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 243–257, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. Ros, C. García, and M. T. Hernandez, “Evaluation of different pig slurry composts as fertilizer of horticultural crops: effects on selected chemical and microbial properties,” Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 307–315, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. X. T. He, T. J. Logan, and S. J. Traina, “Physical and chemical characteristics of selected U.S. municipal solid waste composts,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 543–552, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. A. Alburquerque, J. Gonzálvez, D. García, and J. Cegarra, “Measuring detoxification and maturity in compost made from “alperujo”, the solid by-product of extracting olive oil by the two-phase centrifugation system,” Chemosphere, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 470–477, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  88. European Commission, “Working document: biological treatment of biowaste, 2nd draft,” pp. 1–22, 2001.
  89. European Commission, “Working document: biological treatment of biowaste, 2nd draft,” pp. 1–22, 2005.