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Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2015, Article ID 901656, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/901656
Research Article

Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa)

1Laboratoire de Biologie et de Typage Moléculaire en Microbiologie, Département de Biochimie et de Biologie Cellulaire, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 05 BP 1604 Cotonou, Benin
2Laboratoire de Microbiologie et de Technologie Alimentaire, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 04 BP 1107 Cotonou, Benin
3Laboratoire de Biomembrane et de Signalisation Cellulaire, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP526 Abomey-Calavi, Benin
4Section Hygiène des Eaux et Aliments, Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, 01 BP 418 Cotonou, Benin
5Centre de Recherches Agricoles Sud, Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, BP 03 Attogon, Benin

Received 5 April 2015; Accepted 21 July 2015

Academic Editor: Marco Trevisan

Copyright © 2015 Nadège A. Agbodjato et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans), three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae), and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100%) have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100%) independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.