Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9542361, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9542361
Research Article

Previous Crop and Cultivar Effects on Methane Emissions from Drill-Seeded, Delayed-Flood Rice Grown on a Clay Soil

1Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
2Department of Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, Aberdeen, ID 83210, USA
3Agricultural Statistics Laboratory, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
4Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Rice Research and Extension Center, University of Arkansas, Stuttgart, AR 72160, USA

Received 11 November 2015; Accepted 16 February 2016

Academic Editor: Amaresh K. Nayak

Copyright © 2016 Alden D. Smartt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990–2020, 2006, http://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/PDF/2000ZL5G.PDF.
  2. P. Smith, D. Martino, Z. Cai et al., “Agriculture,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al., Eds., Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  3. P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo et al., “Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning et al., Eds., Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  4. B. Linquist, K. J. van Groenigen, M. A. Adviento-Borbe, C. Pittelkow, and C. Van Kessel, “An agronomic assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from major cereal crops,” Global Change Biology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 194–209, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. A. Linquist, M. A. Adviento-Borbe, C. M. Pittelkow, C. van Kessel, and K. J. van Groenigen, “Fertilizer management practices and greenhouse gas emissions from rice systems: a quantitative review and analysis,” Field Crops Research, vol. 135, pp. 10–21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Nazaries, J. C. Murrell, P. Millard, L. Baggs, and B. K. Singh, “Methane, microbes and models: fundamental understanding of the soil methane cycle for future predictions,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2395–2417, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Armstrong, “Radial oxygen losses from intact rice roots as affected by distance from the apex, respiration and waterlogging,” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 192–197, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. R. Conrad and F. Rothfuss, “Methane oxidation in the soil surface layer of a flooded rice field and the effect of ammonium,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Schütz, W. Seiler, and R. Conrad, “Processes involved in formation and emission of methane in rice paddies,” Biogeochemistry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Rothfuss and R. Conrad, “Effect of gas bubbles on the diffusive flux of methane in anoxic paddy soil,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1511–1518, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, and W. Seiler, “Production, oxidation and emission of methane in rice paddies,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 343–351, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. Holzapfel-Pschorn, R. Conrad, and W. Seiler, “Effects of vegetation on the emission of methane from submerged paddy soil,” Plant and Soil, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 223–233, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. L. Sass, F. M. Fisher, P. A. Harcombe, and F. T. Turner, “Methane production and emission in a Texas rice field,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 47–68, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. L. Sass, F. M. Fisher, Y. B. Wang, F. T. Turner, and M. F. Jund, “Methane emission from rice fields: the effect of floodwater management,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 249–262, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Butterbach-Bahl, H. Papen, and H. Rennenberg, “Impact of gas transport through rice cultivars on methane emission from rice paddy fields,” Plant, Cell and Environment, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1175–1183, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Nouchi, S. Mariko, and K. Aoki, “Mechanism of methane transport from the rhizosphere to the atmosphere through rice plants,” Plant Physiology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. L. Sass, F. M. Fisher, F. T. Turner, and M. F. Jund, “Methane emission from rice fields as influenced by solar radiation, temperature, and straw incorporation,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 335–350, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. J. Whiting and J. P. Chanton, “Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands,” Nature, vol. 364, no. 6440, pp. 794–795, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Huang, R. L. Sass, and F. M. Fisher, “Methane emission from Texas rice paddy soils. 2. Seasonal contribution of rice biomass production to CH4 emission,” Global Change Biology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 491–500, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Q. Shang, X. Yang, C. Gao et al., “Net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in Chinese double rice-cropping systems: a 3-year field measurement in long-term fertilizer experiments,” Global Change Biology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 2196–2210, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. S. Aulakh, R. Wassmann, C. Bueno, J. Kreuzwieser, and H. Rennenberg, “Characterization of root exudates at different growth stages of ten rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars,” Plant Biology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 139–148, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. W. Lindau, P. K. Bollich, and R. D. DeLaune, “Effect of rice variety on methane emission from Louisiana rice,” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 54, no. 1-2, pp. 109–114, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. L. Sass and F. M. Fisher Jr., “Methane emissions from rice paddies: a process study summary,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 49, no. 1-3, pp. 119–127, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. K. Sigren, G. T. Byrd, F. M. Fisher, and R. L. Sass, “Comparison of soil acetate concentratons and methane producton, transport, and emission in two rice cultivars,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Ma, Q. Qiu, and Y. Lu, “Microbial mechanism for rice variety control on methane emission from rice field soil,” Global Change Biology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 3085–3095, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. W. Rogers, K. R. Brye, A. D. Smartt, R. J. Norman, E. E. Gbur, and M. A. Evans-White, “Cultivar and previous crop effects on methane emissions from drill-seeded, delayed-flood rice production on a silt-loam soil,” Soil Science, vol. 179, pp. 28–36, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. B. Simmonds, M. Anders, M. A. Adviento-Borbe, C. van Kessel, A. McClung, and B. A. Linquist, “Seasonal methane and nitrous oxide emissions of several rice cultivars in direct-seeded systems,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 103–114, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. D. Smartt, C. W. Rogers, K. R. Brye et al., “Growing-season methane fluxes and emissions from a silt-loam soil as influenced by rice cultivar,” in B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies, 2014, R. J. Norman and K. A. K. Moldenhauer, Eds., vol. 626 of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series, pp. 289–297, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  29. R. J. Cicerone, C. C. Delwiche, S. C. Tyler, and P. R. Zimmerman, “Methane emissions from California rice paddies with varied treatments,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 233–248, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, and C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biology & Biochemistry, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1313–1322, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. J. Fitzgerald, K. M. Scow, and J. E. Hill, “Fallow season straw and water management effects on methane emissions in California rice,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 767–776, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. L. Sass, F. M. Fisher, S. T. Lewis, F. T. Turner, and M. F. Jund, “Methane emissions from rice fields: effect of soil properties,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 135–140, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. A. C. Denier van der Gon and H. U. Neue, “Influence of organic matter incorporation on the methane emission from a wetland rice field,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. Yagi, H. Tsuruta, and K. Minami, “Possible options for mitigating methane emission from rice cultivation,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 49, no. 1–3, pp. 213–220, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. L. Sass, F. M. Fisher Jr., A. Ding, and Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 104, no. 21, pp. 26943–26951, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Cropland,” in 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, vol. 4 of Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, chapter 5, pp. 5.1–5.66, 2006, http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_05_Ch5_Cropland.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  37. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2013, 2015, http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/US-GHG-Inventory-2015-Main-Text.pdf.
  38. J. T. Hardke, “Trends in Arkansas rice production,” in B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies, 2013, R. J. Norman and K. A. K. Moldenhauer, Eds., vol. 617 of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series, pp. 13–23, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  39. A. D. Smartt, K. R. Brye, R. J. Norman, C. W. Rogers, and M. Duren, “Growing-season methane fluxes from direct-seeded, delayed-flood rice produced on a clay soil,” in B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies, 2012, R. J. Norman and K. A. K. Moldenhauer, Eds., vol. 609 of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series, pp. 306–315, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  40. A. D. Smartt, Influence of vegetation and chamber size on methane emissions from rice production on a clay soil in Arkansas [M.S. thesis], University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 2015.
  41. C. W. Rogers, K. R. Brye, R. J. Norman, T. Gasnier, D. Frizzell, and J. Branson, “Methane emissions from a silt-loam soil under direct-seeded, delayed-flood rice management,” in B. R. Wells Rice Research Studies, 2011, R. J. Norman and K. A. K. Moldenhauer, Eds., vol. 600 of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series, pp. 240–247, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. C. W. Rogers, K. R. Brye, R. J. Norman et al., “Methane emissions from drill-seeded, delayed-flood rice production on a silt-loam soil in Arkansas,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1059–1069, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. R. Brye, C. W. Rogers, A. D. Smartt, and R. J. Norman, “Soil texture effects on methane emissions from direct-seeded, delayed-flood rice production in Arkansas,” Soil Science, vol. 178, no. 10, pp. 519–529, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. A. Adviento-Borbe, C. M. Pittelkow, M. Anders et al., “Optimal fertilizer nitrogen rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1623–1634, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Soil Survey Staff, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and United States Department of Agriculture, Web Soil Survey, 2012, http://websoilsurvey.sc.egov.usda.gov/App/HomePage.htm.
  46. Natural Resources Conservation Service and United States Department of Agriculture, Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the United States, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Basin, United States Department of Agriculture Handbook 296, 2006, http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs142p2_050898.pdf.
  47. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Climatography of the United States No. 81: Monthly station normals of temperature, precipitation, and heating and cooling degree days 1971–2000,” 2002, http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim81/ARnorm.pdf.
  48. S. D. Linscombe, X. Sha, K. Bearb et al., “Registration of ‘Cheniere’ rice,” Crop Science, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1814–1815, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. J. T. Hardke, D. L. Frizzell, C. E. Wilson Jr. et al., “Arkansas rice performance trials,” in B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies, 2012, R. J. Norman and K. A. K. Moldenhauer, Eds., vol. 609 of Arkansas Agricultural Eexperiment Station Research Series, pp. 222–231, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  50. K. A. K. Moldenhauer, J. W. Gibbons, F. N. Lee et al., “Taggart, high yielding large kernel long-grain rice variety,” in B. R. Wells Rice Research Studies, 2008, R. J. Norman and K. A. K. Moldenhauer, Eds., vol. 571, pp. 68–73, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  51. J. T. Hardke, “RICESEED,” 2014, http://riceseed.uaex.edu/Opt1menu.asp.
  52. J. T. Hardke, Ed., Arkansas Rice Production Handbook, University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service MP192, Little Rock, AK, USA, 2013.
  53. R. Norman, N. Slaton, and T. Roberts, “Soil fertility,” in Arkansas Rice Production Handbook, J. T. Hardke, Ed., pp. 69–102, University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service MP192, Little Rock, AK, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  54. G. Lorenz and J. T. Hardke, “Insect management in rice,” in Arkansas Rice Production Handbook, J. T. Hardke, Ed., pp. 139–162, University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service MP192, Little Rock, Ark, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  55. B. Scott, J. Norsworthy, T. Barber, and J. Hardke, “Rice weed control,” in Arkansas Rice Production Handbook, J. T. Hardke, Ed., pp. 53–62, University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service MP 192, Little Rock, AK, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  56. M. R. Tucker, “Determination of phosphorus by Mehlich 3 extraction,” in Soil and Media Diagnostic Procedures for the Southern Region of the United States, S. J. Donohue, Ed., vol. 374, pp. 6–8, Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Bullitin, Blacksburg, Va, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  57. D. W. Nelson and L. E. Sommers, “Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter,” in Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3: Chemical Analysis, D. L. Sparks, A. L. Page, P. A. Helmke et al., Eds., pp. 961–1010, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis, USA, 3rd edition, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  58. E. E. Schulte and B. G. Hopkins, “Estimation of organic matter by weight loss-on-ignition,” in Soil Organic Matter: Analysis and Interpretation, F. R. Magdoff, M. A. Tabatabai, and E. A. Hanlon Jr., Eds., pp. 21–31, Soil Science Society of America Special, Madison, Wis, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  59. G. W. Gee and D. Or, “Particle-size analysis,” in Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 4: Physical Methods, J. H. Dane and G. C. Topp, Eds., pp. 255–293, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis, USA, 1st edition, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  60. W. H. Patrick, R. P. Gambrell, and S. P. Faulkner, “Redox measurements of soil,” in Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3: Chemical Analysis, D. L. Sparks, A. L. Page, P. A. Helmke et al., Eds., pp. 1255–1273, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis, USA, 3rd edition, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  61. G. Livingston and G. Hutchinson, “Enclosure-based measurement of trace gas exchange: applications and sources of error,” in Biogenic Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water, P. A. Matson and R. C. Harriss, Eds., pp. 14–51, Blackwell Sciences, Oxford, UK, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  62. T. Parkin and R. Venterea, “Chamber-based trace gas flux measurements,” in GRACEnet Sampling Protocols, R. Follett, Ed., 2010, http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Program/212/Chapter%203.%20GRACEnet%20Trace%20Gas%20Sampling%20Protocols.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  63. T. B. Parkin, R. T. Venterea, and S. K. Hargreaves, “Calculating the detection limits of chamber-based soil greenhouse gas flux measurements,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 705–715, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Z. P. Wang, C. W. Lindau, R. D. Delaune, and W. H. Patrick Jr., “Methane emission and entrapment in flooded rice soils as affected by soil properties,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 163–168, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Watanabe and M. Kimura, “Influence of chemical properties of soils on methane emission from rice paddies,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 30, no. 17-18, pp. 2449–2463, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. L. Sass, F. M. Fisher, F. T. Turner, and M. F. Jund, “Methane emission from rice fields as influenced by solar radiation, temperature, and straw incorporation,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 335–350, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. A. Beyrouty, R. J. Norman, B. R. Wells et al., “A decade of rice root characterization studies,” in Arkansas Rice Research Studies 1995, R. J. Norman and B. R. Wells, Eds., vol. 453, pp. 9–20, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series, Fayettevile, Ark, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  68. T. Hosono and I. Nouchi, “The dependence of methane transport in rice plants on the root zone temperature,” Plant and Soil, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 233–240, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. Wang, H. U. Neue, and H. P. Samonte, “The effect of controlled soil temperature on diel CH4 emission variation,” Chemosphere, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 2083–2092, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, N. van Breemen, H.-U. Neue et al., “Release of entrapped methane from wetland rice fields upon soil drying,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. U. Neue, R. Wassmann, H. K. Kludze, B. Wang, and R. S. Lantin, “Factors and processes controlling methane emissions from rice fields,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 49, no. 1–3, pp. 111–117, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. T. Hardke, D. L. Frizzell, E. Castaneda-Gonzalez et al., “Arkansas rice performance trials,” in B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies, 2013, R. J. Norman and K. A. K. Moldenhauer, Eds., vol. 617 of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series, pp. 265–273, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  73. K. Yagi and K. Minami, “Effect of organic matter application on methane emission from some Japanese paddy fields,” Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 599–610, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. K. F. Bronson, H.-U. Neue, U. Singh, and E. B. Abao Jr., “Automated chamber measurements of methane and nitrous oxide flux in a flooded rice soil: I. Residue, nitrogen, and water management,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 981–987, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Ma, X. L. Li, H. Xu, Y. Han, Z. C. Cai, and K. Yagi, “Effects of nitrogen fertiliser and wheat straw application on CH4 and N2O emissions from a paddy rice field,” Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 359–367, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. J. Cicerone and J. D. Shetter, “Sources of atmospheric methane: measurements in rice paddies and a discussion,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 7203–7209, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. Wassmann, H. U. Neue, R. S. Lantin et al., “Temporal patterns of methane emissions from wetland rice fields treated by different modes of N application,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 16457–16462, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. W. W. Nazaroff, “Radon transport from soil to air,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 137–160, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. K. Kludze, R. D. DeLaune, and W. H. Patrick, “Aerenchyma formation and methane and oxygen exchange in rice,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 386–391, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar