Table of Contents
Advances in Geriatrics
Volume 2014, Article ID 527518, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/527518
Review Article

Oxidative Stress and Proteostasis Network: Culprit and Casualty of Alzheimer’s-Like Neurodegeneration

1Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40356, USA
4Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA

Received 20 January 2014; Accepted 10 June 2014; Published 8 July 2014

Academic Editor: Ghania Ait-Ghezala

Copyright © 2014 Fabio Di Domenico et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Free radical-mediated damage to proteins is particularly important in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, because in the majority of cases it is a non-reversible phenomenon that requires clearance systems for removal. Major consequences of protein oxidation are loss of protein function and the formation of large protein aggregates, which are often toxic to cells if allowed to accumulate. Deposition of aggregated, misfolded, and oxidized proteins may also result from the impairment of protein quality control (PQC) system, including protein unfolded response, proteasome, and autophagy. Perturbations of such components of the proteostasis network that provides a critical protective role against stress conditions are emerging as relevant factor in triggering neuronal death. In this outlook paper, we discuss the role of protein oxidation as a major contributing factor for the impairment of the PQC regulating protein folding, surveillance, and degradation. Recent studies from our group and from others aim to better understand the link between Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. We propose oxidative stress and alteration of proteostasis network as a possible unifying mechanism triggering neurodegeneration.