Gut Microbiome: An Intersection between Human Genome, Diet, and EpigeneticsRead the full article
Advanced Gut & Microbiome Research is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research and review articles related to all aspects of fundamental and applied research on gastroenterology, microbiology and their interactions.
Chief Editor, Prof Zongxin Ling, is the Principal Investigator of the Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases at Zhejiang University. Dr Ling's research focuses on the cross-talk between host and microbiota in human diseases.
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Alkylresorcinols as a New Type of Gut Microbiota Regulators Influencing Immune Therapy Efficiency in Lung Cancer Treatment
Background. Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are polyphenolic compounds of microbial origin with a wide spectrum of biological activities and are potentially involved in host immune functioning. The present study is aimed at evaluating alterations in AR content in blood serum and faeces from healthy donors and patients with lung cancer in connection with response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy to estimate the regulatory potential of AR. Methods. Quantitative analysis of AR levels, as well as other microbial metabolites in blood serum and faeces, was performed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection; estimation of lymphocyte subsets was performed by flow cytometry; faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from lung cancer patients after ICI therapy to germ-free mice was performed to explore whether the intestinal microbiota could produce AR molecules. Results. AR concentrations in both faeces and serum differ dramatically between healthy and lung cancer donors. The significant increase in AR concentrations in mouse faeces after FMT points to the microbial origin of ARs. For several ARs, there were strong positive and negative correlations in both faeces and serum with immune cells and these interrelationships differed between the therapy-responsive and nonresponsive groups. Conclusions. The content of ARs may influence the response to ICI therapy in lung cancer patients. ARs may be considered regulatory molecules that determine the functioning of antitumor immunity.
An Insight on Gut Flora, Colorectal Cancer Mechanism, and Treatment Strategies
The microbiota in the stomach functions like an actual organ. To maintain gut homeostasis, the digestive tract’s symbiotic relationships with the local microorganisms are crucial. This symbiotic connection may be upset, and illnesses like inflammatory bowel disorders and cancer can be promoted. Infections, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications are a few examples of environmental factors that might alter the microbiome. It is becoming increasingly clear that the microbiota plays a part in the development of colorectal cancer. The complex interplay of tumour cells, nonneoplastic cells, and a large variety of microbes results in colorectal cancer. About 10% of new cancer cases globally are colorectal cancer instances (CRC). The gut microflora, which is situated adjacent to the colorectal epithelium, is made up of a sizable population of bacteria that interact with host cells to control a variety of physiological functions, including energy production, metabolism, and immune response. Sequencing research has revealed microbial compositional and ecological changes in CRC patients, while functional research in animal models has identified several bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, specific strains of Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides fragilis, as key players in the development of colorectal cancer. In this review, we focus on dysbiosis and the potentially carcinogenic characteristics of bacteria to evaluate the possible connections between the bacterial microbiota and colorectal carcinogenesis. We also discuss pertinent mechanisms in microbiota-related carcinogenesis, the potential for using the microbiota as CRC biomarkers, and the possibility of manipulating the microbiota for CRC prevention or treatment.
The Role of the Gut Microbiome and the Hepatic Axis in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome and Therapeutics
The increased global prevalence of viral and noninfectious liver illnesses has coincided with a surge in scientific interest in gut microbiota (GM), a multispecies community of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protozoans. Dietary nutrients that make up the host’s microbiome are responsible for maintaining intestinal homeostasis, whereas a disconnect between gut flora and nutrition might have serious consequences for digestive health. The risk of liver dysfunction was continuously elevated by changes in the commensal bacteria of the gut microbiome, which were carried to the liver via the portal vein. Insights into the role of gut microbiota in alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic liver disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and other liver disorders, as well as their link to liver cancer, continue to emerge. Systemic host defence against infections by the gut microbiota depends on the interplay between the microbiome, liver immunology, and liver disorders. Translocation of microbiota to the liver following injury and/or inflammation may mediate dysbiosis and the formation of gut microbial metabolite. This review discusses the role of the gut microbiota in connection to dysbiosis and how this knowledge might help us better understand the pathophysiology of various liver illnesses.
Preliminary Investigations on the Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Mixed Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria on Albino Rats Challenged with Shigella dysenteriae
This study investigates the potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the Nigerian beverage “kunun zaki” as alternative therapeutic agents against Shigella dysenteriae infections. In light of rising antibiotic resistance, the decline in probiotic usage prompted interest in LAB’s role in countering bacterial dysentery. Shigella dysenteriae, a significant cause of dysentery in developing nations, prompted this research which aims to carry out a preliminary investigation on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of mixed probiotic lactic acid bacteria on albino rats challenged with Shigella dysenteriae. Lactic acid bacteria, known for treating infections, were isolated from the beverage and tested against Shigella dysenteriae. The study employed 15 albino rats for in vivo trials, inducing diarrhea and treating with Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus brevis separately (T1 and T2) and combined in a 1 : 1 ratio (T3). Clinical parameters were observed before and after treatment. This revealed that L. lactis and L. brevis administration lowered rectal temperature from an average of 42°C caused by infection to 36.5°C. Stool consistency improved from light brown loose to dark brown semisolid, signifying reduced diarrhea. Bacteriological analysis displayed significant reduction () in Shigella counts in rat intestines across all treatments— to , , and for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The mixed LAB treatment was notably effective. Lactic acid bacteria counts increased significantly in Shigella-treated rats versus the positive control. Hematology and liver function parameters showed no significant differences between treatments and untreated controls. Lactic acid bacteria from “kunun zaki” exhibited curative potential, individually or combined, against Shigella dysenteriae. These lactic acid bacteria also positively influenced gut microbiota in Shigella-infected albino rats.
Comparing Efficacies of Biopsy and Rapid Urease Testing for H. Pylori at a Single Institution
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) of the world’s population, leading to gastric cancer if left untreated. An estimated 26,000 gastric cancer cases will occur in the US in 2023, with 40% of cases becoming the primary cause of death. Invasive and noninvasive techniques are used to diagnose H. pylori infection; however, controversy exists regarding the “gold standard” for diagnosis. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of H. pylori invasive detection methods: stained biopsy and rapid urease test (RUT) at a single institution. For the study, 200 patients (100 H. pylori + and 100 H. pylori -) from a single institution that underwent gastric biopsies were selected and retrospectively evaluated for H. pylori status. Demographics and clinicopathologic data were collected, including diagnostic tests performed, treatment, and outcomes. Histology and RUT were highly positively and negatively correlative; however, disparate results occurred in 7% of samples which was significant (). Of those that were H. pylori positive, 60% had a posttreatment test completed. Gastric cancer developed in 3 patients (1.5%), all of whom were H. pylori positive. Histology and RUT testing yield similar results; therefore, there is no efficacious reason to run both tests on patients. Since histology has greater sensitivity (>95%) and the ability to identify other gastropathies, it should be considered the “gold standard,” for the identification of H. pylori.
Enrichment of Lactic Acid-Producing Bacteria in the Fecal Microbiota of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in North India
Previous studies have established the relationship between the gut microbiota and ulcerative colitis (UC); however, there is a scarcity of data on the fecal microbiome profile of patients with UC in the Indian population. This study aimed to examine the fecal microbiome profile of north Indian patients with UC (), including with active disease () and in remission (), compared to healthy controls (), using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both relative abundance analysis and linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed a significant enrichment of lactic acid-producing facultative anaerobic pathobionts, namely, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus, in patients with UC (both with active disease and those in remission). Additionally, a significant decrease was observed in anaerobic genera responsible for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, such as Blautia, Roseburia, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. Differential metabolic pathway analysis using PICRUSt2 confirmed a loss of SCFAs production and increased lactose and nitrate metabolism in UC patients. Biochemical analysis of fecal samples confirmed the increased colonization of nitrate-reducing microbes in UC patients, suggesting inflammation-driven dysbiosis. LEfSe and PICRUSt2 analyses revealed an enrichment of Prevotella and Blautia microbes and the upregulation of two specific metabolic pathways, sulfolactate degradation and reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway-I, which can distinguish UC patients in remission from those with active disease. Our findings caution against the use of lactic acid-producing bacteria (LABs) and recommend the exploration of butyrate-producing microbes as probiotics to restore SCFAs levels in UC patients.