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Advances in Hematology
Volume 2011, Article ID 736261, 10 pages
Review Article

Clinical, Molecular, and Environmental Risk Factors for Hodgkin Lymphoma

Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Received 2 July 2010; Accepted 11 October 2010

Academic Editor: Meral Beksac

Copyright © 2011 Alison Maggioncalda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Epidemiological studies suggest unique occurrence patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) worldwide. In most Western countries there is a clear bimodal age distribution with an early peak in young adults followed by a second peak in older adults, particularly among males. In the Middle East and Asia, HL is more common in early childhood. There also are marked racial differences in the presentations of HL and HL subtypes, and particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified as etiological factors suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved. Personal health choices such as exercise and smoking may modify an individual's chances of developing HL. Numerous studies highlight the impact that exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and other environmental factors have on HL risk. Understanding the relative importance of each of these findings and their links to HL development and survival will help clinical researchers expand curative therapies and create preventative strategies for HL.