Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Hematology
Volume 2012, Article ID 485943, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/485943
Review Article

AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

1Floyd & Delores Jones Cancer Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
2Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA

Received 1 November 2011; Accepted 24 November 2011

Academic Editor: Kikkeri N. Naresh

Copyright © 2012 Prakash Vishnu and David M. Aboulafia. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents and Adults 1992, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00018871.htm, 2011.
  2. P. Patel, D. L. Hanson, P. S. Sullivan et al., “Incidence of types of cancer among HIV-infected persons compared with the general population in the United States, 1992-2003,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 148, no. 10, pp. 728–736, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. R. Coté, R. J. Biggar, P. S. Rosenberg et al., “Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among people with aids: incidence, presentation and public health burden,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 645–650, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Bohlius, K. Schmidlin, D. Costagliola et al., “Prognosis of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy,” AIDS, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 2029–2037, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. C. Gisselbrecht, E. Oksenhendler, U. Tirelli et al., “Human immunodeficiency virus-related lymphoma treatment with intensive combination chemotherapy. French-Italian Cooperative Group,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 188–196, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. L. D. Kaplan, D. J. Straus, M. A. Testa et al., “Low-dose compared with standard-dose m-BACOD chemotherapy for non- Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 336, no. 23, pp. 1641–1648, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. A. Sparano, S. Lee, M. G. Chen et al., “Phase II trial of infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial (E1494),” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1491–1500, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. R. T. Costello, H. Zerazhi, A. Charbonnier et al., “Intensive sequential chemotherapy with hematopoietic growth factor support for non-hodgkin lymphoma in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus,” Cancer, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 667–676, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. F. Little, S. Pittaluga, N. Grant et al., “Highly effective treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma with dose-adjusted EPOCH: impact of antiretroviral therapy suspension and tumor biology,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 4653–4659, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Boué, J. Gabarre, C. Gisselbrecht et al., “Phase II trial of CHOP plus rituximab in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 25, pp. 4123–4128, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. L. D. Kaplan, J. Y. Lee, R. F. Ambinder et al., “Rituximab does not improve clinical outcome in a randomized phase 3 trial of CHOP with or without rituximab in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: AIDS-Malignancies Consortium Trial 010,” Blood, vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1538–1543, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Sparano, J. Y. Lee, L. D. Kaplan et al., “Rituximab plus concurrent infusional EPOCH chemotherapy is highly effective in HIV-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma,” Blood, vol. 115, no. 15, pp. 3008–3016, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. H. Swerdlow, E. Campo, N. L. Harris et al., World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, vol. 2, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2008.
  14. D. M. Knowles, “Etiology and pathogenesis of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 785–820, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Epeldegui, E. Vendrame, and O. Martínez-Maza, “HIV-associated immune dysfunction and viral infection: role in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related lymphoma,” Immunologic Research, vol. 48, no. 1–3, pp. 72–83, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. C. Breen, S. Fatahi, M. Epeldegui, W. J. Boscardin, R. Detels, and O. Martínez-Maza, “Elevated serum soluble CD30 precedes the development of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma,” Tumor Biology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 187–194, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. A. Carbone, “Emerging pathways in the development of AIDS-related lymphomas,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Lu, C. Yang, I. Guasparri, W. Harrington, Y. L. Wang, and E. Cesarman, “Early events of B-cell receptor signaling are not essential for the proliferation and viability of AIDS-related lymphoma,” Leukemia, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 807–810, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. D. Capello, M. Scandurra, G. Poretti et al., “Genome wide DNA-profiling of HIV-related B-cell lymphomas,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 245–255, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. L. Díez-Martín, P. Balsalobre, A. Re et al., “Comparable survival between HIV+ and HIV- non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 23, pp. 6011–6014, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. J. Palella Jr., K. M. Delaney, A. C. Moorman et al., “Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV outpatient study investigators,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 13, pp. 853–860, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  22. I. Kwee, D. Capello, A. Rinaldi et al., “Genomic aberrations affecting the outcome of immunodeficiency-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,” Leukemia & Lymphoma, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. M. Levine, A. Tulpule, B. Espina et al., “Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin in combination with standard agents (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) in patients with newly diagnosed AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of therapy and correlates of response,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 2662–2670, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. N. Mounier, M. Spina, J. Gabarre et al., “AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma: final analysis of 485 patients treated with risk-adapted intensive chemotherapy,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 10, pp. 3832–3840, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Cortes, D. Thomas, A. Rios et al., “Hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone and highly active antiretroviral therapy for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia,” Cancer, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 1492–1499, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. J. Straus, J. Huang, M. A. Testa, A. M. Levine, and L. D. Kaplan, “Prognostic factors in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus- associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: analysis of AIDS clinical trials group protocol 142—low-dose versus standard-dose m-BACOD plus granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 3601–3606, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Besson, A. Goubar, J. Gabarre et al., “Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Blood, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 2339–2344, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Hoffmann, E. Wolf, G. Fätkenheuer et al., “Response to highly active antiretroviral therapy strongly predicts outcome in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma,” AIDS, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1521–1529, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Vaccher, M. Spina, R. Talamini et al., “Improvement of systemic human immunodeficiency virus-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1556–1564, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S.-T. Lim, R. Karim, A. Tulpule, B. N. Nathwani, and A. M. Levine, “Prognostic factors in HIV-related diffuse large-cell lymphoma: before versus after highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 33, pp. 8477–8482, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. G. Rossi, A. Donisi, S. Casari, A. Re, G. Cadeo, and G. Carosi, “The International Prognostic Index can be used as a guide to treatment decisions regarding patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma,” Cancer, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2391–2397, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Ziepert, D. Hasenclever, E. Kuhnt et al., “Standard International prognostic index remains a valid predictor of outcome for patients with aggressive CD20+ B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 14, pp. 2373–2380, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Bower, B. Gazzard, S. Mandalia et al., “A prognostic index for systemic AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 143, no. 4, pp. 265–273, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  34. D. J. Straus, “Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lymphomas,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 495–510, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Sarker, C. Thirlwell, M. Nelson, B. Gazzard, and M. Bower, “Leptomeningeal disease in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” AIDS, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 861–865, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Ratner, J. Lee, S. Tang et al., “Chemotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 2171–2178, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  37. N. Siegfried, O. A. Uthman, and G. W. Rutherford, “Optimal time for initiation of antiretroviral therapy in asymptomatic, HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 3, Article ID CD008272, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Antinori, A. Cingolani, L. Alba et al., “Better response to chemotherapy and prolonged survival in aids-related lymphomas responding to highly active antiretroviral therapy,” AIDS, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1483–1491, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Spina, U. Jaeger, J. A. Sparano et al., “Rituximab plus infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: pooled results from 3 phase 2 trials,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 1891–1897, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Weiss, P. Mitrou, K. Arasteh et al., “Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: simultaneous treatment with combined cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy is safe and improves survival—results of the German Multicenter Trial,” Cancer, vol. 106, no. 7, pp. 1560–1568, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00118209?term=NCT00118209& rank=1.
  42. E. Vaccher, M. Spina, G. di Gennaro et al., “Concomitant cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related, non-Hodgkin lymphoma,” Cancer, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 155–163, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Bower, N. McCall-Peat, N. Ryan et al., “Protease inhibitors potentiate chemotherapy-induced neutropenia,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2943–2946, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. J. Stebbing, S. Mandalia, C. Palmieri et al., “Burkitt's lymphoma and previous AIDS-defining illnesses are not prognostic factors in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 33, pp. 8538–8540, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  45. E. S. Wang, D. J. Straus, J. Teruya-Feldstein et al., “Intensive chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC) for human immunodeficiency virus-associated Burkitt lymphoma,” Cancer, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1196–1205, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. K. Dunleavy, R. F. Little, J. D. Wayne et al., “Good outcome of AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with abbreviated cycles of EPOCH-rituximab,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies (ICMAOI): Basic, Epidemiologic, and Clinical Research, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2008.
  47. T. Kewalramani, A. D. Zelenetz, S. D. Nimer et al., “Rituximab and ICE as second-line therapy before autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 3684–3688, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Bi, B. M. Espina, A. Tulpule, W. Boswell, and A. M. Levine, “High-dose cytosine - Arabinoside and cisplatin regimens as salvage therapy for refractory or relapsed AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 416–421, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. E. Wright and V. D. Bowers, “Organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 22, pp. 1801–1803, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Krishnan, J. Zaia, and S. J. Forman, “Should HIV-positive patients with lymphoma be offered stem cell transplants?” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 741–748, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Krishnan, A. Molina, J. Zaia et al., “Durable remissions with autologous stem cell transplantation for high-risk HTV-associated lymphomas,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 874–878, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. R. Spitzer, R. F. Ambinder, J. Y. Lee et al., “Dose-Reduced Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide, and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Lymphoma: AIDS Malignancy Consortium Study 020,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Balsalobre, J. L. Díez-Martín, A. Re et al., “Autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with HIV-related lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2192–2198, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. A. Re, M. Michieli, S. Casari et al., “High-dose therapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation as salvage treatment for AIDS-related lymphoma: long-term results of the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and Tumors (GICAT) study with analysis of prognostic factors,” Blood, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 1306–1313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Krishnan, J. M. Palmer, J. A. Zaia, N. C. Tsai, J. Alvarnas, and S. J. Forman, “HIV status does not affect the outcome of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL),” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1302–1308, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Krishnan, J. Zaia, and A. Molina, “Stem cell transplantation and gene therapy for HIV-related lymphomas,” Journal of Hematotherapy and Stem Cell Research, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 765–775, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Serrano, R. Carrión, P. Balsalobre et al., “HIV-associated lymphoma successfully treated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 487–494, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. J. Gabarre, A. G. Marcelin, N. Azar et al., “High-dose therapy plus autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lymphoma: results and impact on HIV disease,” Haematologica, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1100–1108, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Re, C. Cattaneo, M. Michieli et al., “High-dose therapy and autologous peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation as salvage treatment for HIV-associated lymphoma in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 4423–4427, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. D. L. DiGiusto, A. Krishnan, L. Li et al., “RNA-based gene therapy for HIV with lentiviral vector-modified CD34+ cells in patients undergoing transplantation for AIDS-related lymphoma,” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 2, no. 36, article 36ra43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. Information on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESA) Epoetin alfa (marketed as Procrit, Epogen), Darbepoetin alfa (marketed as Aranesp), http://www.fda.gov, U. S. FDA; 2011.
  62. M. Chavez-Macgregor, H. Zhao, S. Fang, T. P. Srokowski, G. N. Hortobagyi, and S. H. Giordano, “Complications associated with erythropoietin-stimulating agents in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Study,” Cancer, vol. 117, no. 16, pp. 3641–3649, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. S. Combs, N. Neil, and D. M. Aboulafia, “Liposomal doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide and antiretroviral therapy for patients with AIDS-related lymphoma: a pilot study,” Oncologist, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 666–673, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. M. Levine, “A phase II trial of pegylated doxorubicin, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (DR-COP) in patients with newly diagnosed AIDS-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL): an AIDS Malignancy Consortium trial (AMC 047),” in Proceedings of the ASCO Annual Meeting, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2010.
  65. D. Mani, R. K. Dorer, and D. M. Aboulafia, “Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia following HIV-associated lymphoma,” Clinical lymphoma & myeloma, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 316–319, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus