Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Hematology
Volume 2014, Article ID 704318, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/704318
Review Article

Ethical and Clinical Aspects of Intensive Care Unit Admission in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Guidelines of the Ethics Commission of the French Society of Hematology

1Hematology Department of the René Huguenin Hospital, Institut Curie, 35 rue Dailly, 92210 Saint-Cloud, France
2Ethics Commission of the French Society of Hematology, France
3Hematology Department of the University of Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble, France
4Hematology Department of the Robert Boulin Hospital, 33505 Libourne, France
5Hematology Department of the University of Tours, 37044 Tours, France
6Hematology Department of the University of Bobigny, 93000 Bobigny, France
7Hematology Department of the University of Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France
8Hematology Department of the University of Créteil, 94010 Créteil, France
9Hematology Department of the University of Necker, 75015 Paris, France
10Hematology Department of the University of Besançon, 25030 Besançon, France
11Hematology Department of the Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, 75001 Paris, France
12Hematology Department of the University of Limoges, 87042 Limoges, France

Received 29 July 2014; Revised 22 September 2014; Accepted 22 September 2014; Published 1 October 2014

Academic Editor: Emili Montserrat

Copyright © 2014 Sandra Malak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Pulte, A. Gondos, and H. Brenner, “Improvements in survival of adults diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia in the early 21st century,” Haematologica, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 594–600, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Pulte, A. Gondos, and H. Brenner, “Ongoing improvement in outcomes for patients diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin lymphoma from the 1990s to the early 21st century,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 469–476, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Y. Kristinsson, P. W. Dickman, W. H. Wilson, N. Caporaso, M. Björkholm, and O. Landgren, “Improved survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the past decade: a population-based study including 11,179 patients diagnosed between 1973–2003 in Sweden,” Haematologica, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 1259–1265, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Pemmaraju, H. Kantarjian, J. Shan et al., “Analysis of outcomes in adolescents and young adults with chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with upfront tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy,” Haematologica, vol. 97, no. 7, pp. 1029–1035, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Gurion, L. Vidal, A. Gafter-Gvili, Y. B. Yeshurun, P. Raanani, and O. Shpilberg, “5-Azacitidine prolongs overall survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome—a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Haematologica, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 303–310, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Estey, “Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in older patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 1908–1915, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. J. Roth, L. Krilov, S. Adams et al., “Clinical cancer advances 2012: annual report on progress against cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 131–161, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Thiéry, É. Azoulay, M. Darmon et al., “Outcome of cancer patients considered for intensive care unit admission: a hospital-wide prospective study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 4406–4413, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Morgan, T. Tillett, J. Braybrooke, and T. Ajithkumar, “Management of uncommon chemotherapy-induced emergencies,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 806–814, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. Vento, F. Cainelli, and Z. Temesgen, “Lung infections after cancer chemotherapy,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 982–992, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. C. Gordon, H. E. Oakervee, B. Kaya et al., “Incidence and outcome of critical illness amongst hospitalised patients with haematological malignancy: a prospective observational study of ward and intensive care unit based care,” Anaesthesia, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 340–347, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Schellongowski, T. Staudinger, M. Kundi et al., “Prognostic factors for intensive care unit admission, intensive care outcome, and post-intensive care survival in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: a single center experience,” Haematologica, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Azoulay, D. Mokart, F. Pène et al., “Outcomes of critically ill patients with hematologic malignancies: prospective multicenter data from France and Belgium—a groupe de recherche respiratoire en réanimation onco-hématologique study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 2810–2818, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. A. Namendys-Silva, M. O. Gonzalez-Herrera, F. J. Garcia-Guillen, J. Texcocano-Becerra, and A. Herrera-Gomez, “Outcome of critically ill patients with hematological malignancies,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 699–705, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. J. Larché, É. Azoulay, F. Fieux et al., “Improved survival of critically ill cancer patients with septic shock,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1688–1695, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. É. Azoulay, G. Thiéry, S. Chevret et al., “The prognosis of acute respiratory failure in critically ill cancer patients,” Medicine, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 360–370, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. A. Hampshire, C. A. Welch, L. A. McCrossan, K. Francis, and D. A. Harrison, “Admission factors associated with hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancy admitted to UK adult, general critical care units: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database,” Critical Care, vol. 13, no. 4, article R137, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. M. Townsend, A. Holroyd, R. Pearce et al., “Improved intensive care unit survival for critically ill allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients following reduced intensity conditioning,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 578–586, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. D. Yeo, J. W. Kim, S. C. Kim et al., “Prognostic factors in critically ill patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 739.e1–739.e6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. Q. A. Hill, “Intensify, resuscitate or palliate: decision making in the critically ill patient with haematological malignancy,” Blood Reviews, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. Y. Khassawneh, P. White Jr., E. J. Anaissie, B. Barlogie, and F. Charles Hiller, “Outcome from mechanical ventilation after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation,” Chest, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 185–188, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. V. Peigne, K. Rusinová, L. Karlin et al., “Continued survival gains in recent years among critically ill myeloma patients,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 512–518, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Pene, S. Percheron, V. Lemiale et al., “Temporal changes in management and outcome of septic shock in patients with malignancies in the intensive care unit,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 690–696, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  24. G. T. Bird, P. Farquhar-Smith, T. Wigmore, M. Potter, and P. C. Gruber, “Outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with haematological malignancy admitted to a specialist cancer intensive care unit: a 5 yr study,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 452–459, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. A. Geerse, L. F. R. Span, S.-J. Pinto-Sietsma, and W. N. K. A. van Mook, “Prognosis of patients with haematological malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit: sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) trend is a powerful predictor of mortality,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Darmon, G. Thiery, M. Ciroldi et al., “Intensive care in patients with newly diagnosed malignancies and a need for cancer chemotherapy,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2488–2493, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. M. Vandijck, D. D. Benoit, P. O. Depuydt et al., “Impact of recent intravenous chemotherapy on outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock patients with hematological malignancies,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 847–855, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-U. Song, G. Y. Suh, M. P. Chung et al., “Risk factors to predict outcome in critically ill cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in the intensive care unit,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 491–495, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. G. Oeyen, D. D. Benoit, L. Annemans et al., “Long-term outcomes and quality of life in critically ill patients with hematological or solid malignancies: a single center study,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 889–898, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. M. Merz, P. Schär, M. Bühlmann, J. Takala, and H. U. Rothen, “Resource use and outcome in critically ill patients with hematological malignancy: a retrospective cohort study,” Critical Care, vol. 12, no. 3, article R75, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. C. Earle, M. B. Landrum, J. M. Souza, B. A. Neville, J. C. Weeks, and J. Z. Ayanian, “Aggressiveness of cancer care near the end of life: is it a quality-of-care issue?” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 3860–3866, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Giannini and D. Consonni, “Physicians' perceptions and attitudes regarding inappropriate admissions and resource allocation in the intensive care setting,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. A. Wright, B. Zhang, A. Ray et al., “Associations between end-of-life discussions, patient mental health, medical care near death, and caregiver bereavement adjustment,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 300, no. 14, pp. 1665–1673, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. J. Loscalzo, “Palliative care and psychosocial contributions in the ICU,” Hematology, vol. 2008, no. 1, pp. 481–490, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Shanafelt and L. Dyrbye, “Oncologist burnout: causes, consequences, and responses,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1235–1241, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. A. Whippen and G. P. Canellos, “Burnout syndrome in the practice of oncology: results of a random survey of 1,000 oncologists,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1916–1920, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. W. I. Bokhari, T. Munir, S. Memon, J. L. Byrne, N. H. Russell, and M. Beed, “Impact of critical care reconfiguration and track-and-trigger outreach team intervention on outcomes of haematology patients requiring intensive care admission,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 505–512, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Cooksley, E. Kitlowski, and P. Haji-Michael, “Effectiveness of Modified Early Warning Score in predicting outcomes in oncology patients,” QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, vol. 105, no. 11, Article ID hcs138, pp. 1083–1088, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. von Lilienfeld-Toal, K. Midgley, S. Lieberbach et al., “Observation-based early warning scores to detect impending critical illness predict in-hospital and overall survival in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 568–576, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. C. Angus, A. E. Barnato, W. T. Linde-Zwirble et al., “Use of intensive care at the end of life in the United States: an epidemiologic study,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 638–643, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. D. Truog, M. L. Campbell, J. R. Curtis et al., “Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: a consensus statement by the American College of Critical Care Medicine,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 953–963, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Blot, M. Guiguet, G. Nitenberg, B. Leclercq, B. Gachot, and B. Escudier, “Prognostic factors for neutropenic patients in an intensive care unit: respective roles of underlying malignancies and acute organ failures,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1031–1037, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Azoulay, C. Alberti, C. Bornstain et al., “Improved survival in cancer patients requiring mechanical ventilatory support: impact of noninvasive mechanical ventilatory support,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 519–525, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. Lecuyer, S. Chevret, G. Thiery, M. Darmon, B. Schlemmer, and É. Azoulay, “The ICU trial: a new admission policy for cancer patients requiring mechanical ventilation,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 808–814, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. O. Soubani, E. Kseibi, J. J. Bander et al., “Outcome and prognostic factors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients admitted to a medical ICU,” Chest, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 1604–1611, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Ferrà, P. Marcos, M. Misis et al., “Outcome and prognostic factors in patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit: a single-center experience,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 195–202, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. R. Jackson, M. G. Tweeddale, M. J. Barnett et al., “Admission of bone marrow transplant recipients to the intensive care unit: outcome, survival and prognostic factors,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 697–704, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. Y. Park, G. Y. Suh, K. Jeon et al., “Outcome and prognostic factors of patients with acute leukemia admitted to the intensive care unit for septic shock,” Leukemia & Lymphoma, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1929–1934, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. Kroschinsky, M. Weise, T. Illmer et al., “Outcome and prognostic features of intensive care unit treatment in patients with hematological malignancies,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1294–1300, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Rabbat, D. Chaoui, D. Montani et al., “Prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia admitted to intensive care,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 350–357, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J.-P. Sculier, M. Paesmans, E. Markiewicz, and T. Berghmans, “Scoring systems in cancer patients admitted for an acute complication in a medical intensive care unit,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 2786–2792, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. B. Massion, A. M. Dive, C. Doyen et al., “Prognosis of hematologic malignancies does not predict intensive care unit mortality,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 2260–2270, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. “American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 864–874, 1992.
  54. “Guidelines for intensive care unit admission, discharge, and triage. Task Force of the American College of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 633–638, 1999.
  55. L. N. Tremblay, R. H. Hyland, B. D. Schouten, and P. J. Hanly, “Survival of acute myelogenous leukemia patients requiring intubation/ventilatory support,” Clinical and Investigative Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. F. Brunet, J. J. Lanore, J. F. Dhainaut et al., “Is intensive care justified for patients with haematological malignancies?” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 291–297, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. R. Lloyd-Thomas, I. Wright, T. A. Lister, and C. J. Hinds, “Prognosis of patients receiving intensive care for lifethreatening medical complications of haematological malignancy,” British Medical Journal, vol. 296, no. 6628, pp. 1025–1029, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. D. Rubenfeld and S. W. Crawford, “Withdrawing life support from mechanically ventilated recipients of bone marrow transplants: a case for evidence-based guidelines,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 125, no. 8, pp. 625–633, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Garrouste-Orgeas, L. Montuclard, J.-F. Timsit et al., “Predictors of intensive care unit refusal in French intensive care units: a multiple-center study,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 750–755, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. L. Sprung, D. Geber, L. A. Eidelman et al., “Evaluation of triage decisions for intensive care admission,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1073–1079, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Legrand, A. Max, V. Peigne et al., “Survival in neutropenic patients with severe sepsis or septic shock,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. É. Azoulay and B. Afessa, “The intensive care support of patients with malignancy: do everything that can be done,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 3–5, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Azoulay, M. Soares, M. Darmon, D. Benoit, S. Pastores, and B. Afessa, “Intensive care of the cancer patient: Recent achievements and remaining challenges,” Annals of Intensive Care, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Soares, J. I. F. Salluh, N. Spector, and J. R. Rocco, “Characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients requiring mechanical ventilatory support for > 24 hrs,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 520–526, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. F. Neumann, O. Lobitz, R. Fenk et al., “The sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is predictive for survival of patients admitted to the intensive care unit following allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 299–304, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Timsit, J. Fosse, G. Troché et al., “Accuracy of a composite score using daily SAPS II and LOD scores for predicting hospital mortality in ICU patients hospitalized for more than 72 h,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1012–1021, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. C. Carlon, “Just say no,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 106–107, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. S. Groeger and P. B. Bach, “Consider saying yes,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 320–321, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. Lengliné, E. Raffoux, V. Lemiale et al., “Intensive care unit management of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia with no organ failure,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1352–1359, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. W. Mack, A. Cronin, N. L. Keating et al., “Associations between end-of-life discussion characteristics and care received near death: a prospective cohort study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 35, pp. 4387–4395, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. Bastard, D. Bordessoule, P. Casassus et al., “Les limitations thérapeutiques en hématologie: réflexions et propositions éthiques de la Société Française d'Hématologie,” Hématologie, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 71–79, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. A. Wright, N. L. Keating, T. A. Balboni, U. A. Matulonis, S. D. Block, and H. G. Prigerson, “Place of death: correlations with quality of life of patients with cancer and predictors of bereaved caregivers' mental health,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 29, pp. 4457–4464, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y. H. Yun, Y. C. Kwon, M. K. Lee et al., “Experiences and attitudes of patients with terminal cancer and their family caregivers toward the disclosure of terminal illness,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1950–1957, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. W. Frost, D. J. Cook, D. K. Heyland, and R. A. Fowler, “Patient and healthcare professional factors influencing end-of-life decision-making during critical illness: a systematic review,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1174–1189, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. M. A. Cesta, M. Cardenas-Turanzas, C. Wakefield, K. J. Price, and J. L. Nates, “Life-supportive therapy withdrawal and length of stay in a large oncologic intensive care unit at the end of life,” Journal of Palliative Medicine, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 713–718, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. J. Strand and J. A. Billings, “Integrating palliative care in the intensive care unit,” The Journal of Supportive Oncology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 180–187, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  77. D. Cook and G. Rocker, “Dying with dignity in the intensive care unit,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 26, pp. 2506–2514, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. C. Chabannon, D. Pamphilon, C. Vermylen et al., “Ten years after the first inspection of a candidate European centre, an EBMT registry analysis suggests that clinical outcome is improved when hematopoietic SCT is performed in a JACIE accredited program,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15–17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. H. Abbott, J. G. Sago, C. M. Breen, A. P. Abernethy, and J. A. Tulsky, “Families looking back: one year after discussion of withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining support,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 197–201, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. T. Levin, B. Moreno, W. Silvester, and D. W. Kissane, “End-of-life communication in the intensive care unit,” General Hospital Psychiatry-Journal, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 433–442, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar