Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Retracted

This article has been retracted as it was found to contain a substantial amount of material from the following published article: “Plasmablastic Lymphoma: A Systematic Review” by Jorge J. Castillo and John L. Reagan, in The Scientific World Journal.

View the full Retraction here.

References

  1. G. Elyamany, E. Al Mussaed, and A. M. Alzahrani, “Plasmablastic lymphoma: a review of current knowledge and future directions,” Advances in Hematology, vol. 2015, Article ID 315289, 11 pages, 2015.
Advances in Hematology
Volume 2015, Article ID 315289, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/315289
Review Article

Plasmablastic Lymphoma: A Review of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

1Department of Pathology and Blood Bank, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, P.O. Box 7897, Riyadh 11159, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Hematology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt
3Hematopathology Division, Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Oncology, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia

Received 16 May 2015; Revised 29 July 2015; Accepted 3 August 2015

Academic Editor: Elvira Grandone

Copyright © 2015 Ghaleb Elyamany et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM). PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death. There is no standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of PBL. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like regimens have been the backbone while more intensive regimens such as cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC), or dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (DA-EPOCH) are possible options. Recently, a few studies have reported the potential value of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and thalidomide in PBL patients. The introduction of genes encoding artificial receptors called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and CAR-modified T cells targeted to the B cell-specific CD19 antigen have demonstrated promising results in multiple early clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in epidemiology; pathophysiology; clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics; therapy; and outcome in patients with PBL.