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Advances in Human-Computer Interaction
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 123725, 16 pages
Research Article

Static and Dynamic User Portraits

1Institute of Applied Arts, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
2Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal
3Institute of Creative Industrial Design, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan

Received 18 May 2012; Revised 12 September 2012; Accepted 13 October 2012

Academic Editor: Bill Kapralos

Copyright © 2012 Ko-Hsun Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


User modeling and profiling has been used to evaluate systems and predict user behaviors for a considerable time. Models and profiles are generally constructed based on studies of users’ behavior patterns, cognitive characteristics, or demographic data and provide an efficient way to present users’ preferences and interests. However, such modeling focuses on users’ interactions with a system and cannot support complicated social interaction, which is the emerging focus of serious games, educational hypermedia systems, experience, and service design. On the other hand, personas are used to portray and represent different groups and types of users and help designers propose suitable solutions in iterative design processes. However, clear guidelines and research approaches for developing useful personas for large-scale and complex social networks have not been well established. In this research, we reflect on three different design studies related to social interaction, experience, and cross-platform service design to discuss multiple ways of identifying both direct users and invisible users in design research. In addition, research methods and attributes to portray users are discussed.