Research Article

Blind Sailors’ Spatial Representation Using an On-Board Force Feedback Arm: Two Case Studies

Figure 3

Similarity representations of participant 3, drawn itineraries relative to the actual itineraries. Arrows show the distances and orientations between the drawn and the actual points . The gridline illustrates spatial distortion. The picture on the left (a) corresponds to representation after navigating in egocentric condition ( ) and the picture on the right (b) to the allocentric equivalent ( ). These pictures clearly show more important variations between itinerary representations and actual waypoint positions after navigation in the egocentric condition compared to the allocentric condition.