Advances in Human-Computer Interaction / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Tangible User Interface for Social Interactions for the Elderly: A Review of Literature

Table 2

Summary of review results.

Paper #Objective of the paperDisciplineDesign & development methodologyEvaluation methodologyUser involvementSample size & demographicsEvaluation method & data capture

[50]To design and conduct a preliminary evaluation of a “the book as user interface”-based email system for elderly peopleHuman-Computer InteractionSemistructured interviews with email using elderly participantsYes. EmpiricalYesSix participants (five were using a computer for the first time, while one was a complete beginner)Questionnaire. Perceived ease of use and feelings of independence

[45]To promote reminiscence and memory sharing activities by explore the suitability of using digital media with tangible scrapbook applicationInformation Technologies, Computer Science and InformaticsUser-centeredYes. EmpiricalYesNot elderly participantsUser study experiment and questionnaire. Usability in terms of performance results, ease of use, usefulness, and so on

[44]To better design usable and user-sensitive interaction for the elderly people, with the purpose to increase their acceptance using ICT for communicationsTechnology Assessment & Design, Inclusive Design and ResearchUser-centeredYes. EmpiricalYesNot mentionedWorkshop. Usability

[49]To design and evaluate a TUI embedding asynchronous voice message systems to address elderly people’s intergenerational communicationBioengineering, Computer Science and Engineering, ArtResearch through study approach with engaging usersYes. EmpiricalYesNot elderly participantsQualitative evaluation. Usability and user engagement

[43]To study how to create possibilities of interaction and dialogues using tangible social media via the design concept of Super DotsCentre for Theory & Method/Co-DesignUser-centeredYes. EmpiricalYesAge was not clearly mentioned. One participant was 82 years old. A total of six elderly participants were mentioned throughout the paperWorkshops. Possibility for interaction and dialogues

[46]To apply and analyze different multimodality (aural, visual, tactile, gesture, posture, and space) in designing tangible communication systems for elderly, with the purpose to support communication and social interaction among elderly people. Prototypes were implemented and evaluatedInformatics & Design, Inclusive Design and ResearchUser-centeredYes. EmpiricalYesNot mentionedWorkshops with use cases. Observation on how players interacted with the TUI in terms of different modalities

[55]To design more accessible and enjoyable chronic disease self-health management system for the elderly peopleInformation Art & Design, Computer Science and TechnologyUser research (interview, observation, persona)Yes. EmpiricalYes10 participants (only details of seven of them were given). Age ranged from 60 to 90, with different diseases like hypertension, bronchitis, diabetes, and disabilities such as poor memory, visual impairment, motor impairment, and so onRole-play to access the elderly people’s interaction pattern; cord sorting to understand mental model. Visual interface was also tested

[47]To design accessible, functional and acceptable TUI for elderly people’s digital inclusion through user involvementInformatics & Design, Inclusive Design and ResearchUser-centeredYes. EmpiricalYesSeries of workshop were conducted from year 2010 to 2012 but sample size and demographics of the participants were not mentionedWorkshops with interviews, design sessions, focus groups, usability testing, and feedback rounds. Multimodal analysis frames were also used as evaluation tools for redesign process.
Workshop series in 2010: focus on the exploration of communication habits of elderly people.
Workshop series in 2011: focus on the interaction design.
Workshop series in 2012: focus on the usability

[56]To design and evaluate a TUI pervasive cognition simulation collaborative system, with the aim of addressing technological, social family networks, and illiteracy gaps regardless of physical location for elderly peopleComputer SciencesCase studies (identifying and understanding users, roles, interactions, and identifying factors that affect relationships of elderly people with their family)Yes. EmpiricalYesSix healthy elderly participants with one relative each (five adult children, age ranged from 33 to 55 & one grandchildren aged 21)Observation and questionnaire to study perception of use (ease of use, usefulness, enjoyment, and anxiety) and projected use (intention of use and expected use). Open questions to study communication practices and cognition simulation activities

[57]To design a serious game for cognitive training and screening for elderly people by utilising augmented reality and tangible objectsComputer SciencesBased on design principles, design, and usability suggestion from other studies and collaboration with physicianYes. EmpiricalYesFive elderly participants who were 60 years old and above, independently performing activities of daily living, not diagnosed with any kind of dementia, familiar with technology (i.e., using or having used laptop, tablet PC, and smartphone) and video games (i.e., playing or having played video games before) and would be novice augmented reality usersIn-Game Experience Questionnaire to evaluate the game experience. System Usability Scale to evaluate the usability and interaction. Open, semistructured interviews to study participants’ personal playing experience

[58]To employ tangible multimedia artifact to support reminiscence sessionsMedia, Design, Innovation SciencesField researchYes. EmpiricalYesEight people with dementia (7 women and 1 man. Age above 80) suffered from different levels of Alzheimer’s with handicaps such as mobility problems, hearing problems, speech impairments (related to strokes), and tremors; and four caregiversSound recording for transcripts and observations to study the interactions with a tangible multimedia book, interactions between people, and physical reactions of participants during reminiscence sessions. Focus group to get feedback from caregivers about the reminiscence sessions

[59]To design an immersive interface focusing on edutainment contents, with the aim for elderly people to enjoy themselves and improve their health and quality of livesInternet & Multimedia Engineering, Advanced Fusion Technology, Game Engineering,Not mentionedYes. EmpiricalYesExperiment 1: 30 people (five age groups (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60) and each age group consists of three men and three women).
Experiment 2: 8 subjects (three women & five men. Age ranged from 50 to 70)
Experiment 1: performances of playing the games were evaluated to measure the effects of familiarity to the interaction metaphor. Learning curves of the digitalized game were tested to measure the effects of familiar interaction metaphor.
Experiment 2: time required to complete each game was measured to see the effects of believable interaction metaphor. Subjects were interviewed with questionnaire to measure user satisfaction

[48]To develop a tangible intergenerational collaborative game for elderly peopleEmbedded Interaction, InformaticsUser-centeredYes. EmpiricalYesTwo elderly women (age ranged from 56 to 65) who did not have grandchildren and described themselves as advanced computer users, and one boy (age 8) who played computer games frequentlyObservations and comments from the participants. The acceptance, the handling with the game and suggestions to improve the games and to adapt the players’ requirements

[52]To bridge intergenerational gap between elderly and young people with the aim of engaging elderly people in social media through photos and solving social isolation barrierImaging MediaNot mentionedYes. EmpiricalNoN/AComparing with other existing systems (Sound Shot, AudioBoom, and Yappie) and the previous work (audio enhanced paper photos) in terms of functionality and performance of system

[60]To design and evaluate a tabletop game especially created for senior citizens, with the aim of providing leisure and funIndustrial Design, Communication and Information SciencesField study (observation, interview)Yes. EmpiricalYesEight elderly participants (three women & five men. Age ranged from 65 to 73)Questionnaire and interview. Game experience of the elderly players

[61]To design a tabletop solution that provides a pleasant social cognitive training, with the aim of preserving cognitive functions in elderly peopleGeneral Psychology, Bioengineering and TechnologyA series of stages including identification of requirements, planning and development of initial concepts, and usability and acceptance analysisYes. EmpiricalYesUsability evaluation: three different groups of four elderly players (age ranged from 64 to 75, mean age 68.083, standard deviation 3.34); trial managers and usability experts.
Level of acceptance of the prototype: 107 elderly users in three trial centers (Spain 46%, England 14%, and Norway 40%) and a group of 21 experienced users.
Consistency of the monitoring module: 59 elderly players
Usability evaluation: video-analysis and observation for elderly players to identify requests for help. Checklists for trial managers and usability experts to test usability.
Level of acceptance of the prototype: questionnaires and focus groups to evaluate acceptance.
Consistency of the monitoring module: statistic comparison of the scores by Eldergames with those obtained with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence to validate the scoring system

[54]To study the guidelines for making users feel playful and engaged while playing game by developing an applicationComputer SciencesBased on guidelinesYes. EmpiricalYesNot mentionedObservation and comments from participants. The impact of games in terms of user experience

[51]To present a multitouch social interaction system for elderly people that enables them to engage the benefits of ICT and enhance their social interactionIndustrial Design, Computer Science and Information EngineeringNot mentionedNoNoN/AN/A

[53]To improve the quality of elderly people’s life by providing a better and richer gaming experience with the use of real objects while interacting with digital gamesComputer EngineeringNot mentionedYes. EmpiricalYesNot mentionedObservation during usability testing. The use of tangible objects and the interactions of elderly people with them while playing the game

[62]To explore the use of surface computing and TUI for people with dementia by developing three prototypesHuman and Technology InteractionInterviews and workshop with experts, use of personas and referencing books and material collections for occupational therapy in dementiaYes. EmpiricalYes14 participants (nine women & five men. Age ranged from 77 to 93) representing all degrees of dementiaObservation, system log, and interview with occupational therapists. User experience and system usability, well-being of the dementia patients in terms of social interactions between caregivers and patients

[63]To design a system where the technology is hidden behind a well-known metaphor so that system accessibility and user acceptance of elderly people can be improvedTechnology for Human Well-being, Hospital & Health Care, TechnologyBased on guidelines, feedback from lab users and visitorsYes. EmpiricalYesEight participants (five women & three men. Age ranged from 69 to 100) with different health conditions. Had primary education level and rarely used new ICT. Social interactions varied from weekly visit to yearly visit and from receiving calls from family and friends to no callsObservation to study task-based analysis (communication task, recognition task, and opening/closing task) and interaction analysis (proximity in terms of distance where people stand from each other while interacting, participants’ gestures and actions, and emotions). Semistructured interview to study user experience

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.