Advances in High Energy Physics

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 504715, 24 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/504715

Review Article

## Atmospheric Neutrinos

Institute for Cosmic Ray Research and Kavli-IPMU, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582, Japan

Received 8 July 2012; Accepted 11 September 2012

Academic Editor: Koichiro Nishikawa

Copyright © 2012 Takaaki Kajita. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Linked References

- P. Minkowski, “$\mu \to e\gamma $ at a rate of 10
^{9}muon decays?”*Physics Letters B*, vol. 67, p. 421, 1977. View at Google Scholar - T. Yanagida, “Horizontal gauge symmetry and masses of neutrinos,” in
*Proceedings of the Workshop on the Unified Theory and Baryon Number in the Universe*, O. Sawada and A. Sugamoto, Eds., pp. 95–98, 1979, (KEK report 79-18, 1979). - M. Gell-Mann, P. Ramond, and R. Slansky, “Complex spinors and unified theories,” in
*Supergravity*, P. van Nieuwenhuizen and D. Z. Freedman, Eds., pp. 315–321, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1979. View at Google Scholar - Z. Maki, M. Nakagawa, and S. Sakata, “Remarks on the unified model of elementary particles,”
*Progress of Theoretical Physics*, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 870–880, 1962. View at Google Scholar - B. Pontecorvo, “Neutrino experiments and the problem of conservation of leptonic charge,”
*Soviet Physics*, vol. 26, pp. 984–988, 1968. View at Google Scholar - G. D. Barr, T. K. Gaisser, P. Lipari, S. Robbins, and T. Stanev, “Three-dimensional calculation of atmospheric neutrinos,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 70, no. 2, Article ID 023006, 13 pages, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, “Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 83, no. 12, Article ID 123001, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, “Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 75, no. 4, Article ID 043006, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - G. Battistoni, A. Ferrari, P. Lipari, T. Montaruli, P. R. Sala, and T. Rancati, “A three-dimensional calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux,”
*Astroparticle Physics*, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 315–333, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - G. Battistoni, A. Ferrari, T. Montaruli, and P. R. Sala, “The FLUKA atmospheric neutrino flux calculation,”
*Astroparticle Physics*, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 269–290, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - P. Lipari, “Review of sources of atmospheric neutrinos,”
*Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 91, no. 1–3, pp. 159–166, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J. Morfin, J. Nieves, and J. Sobczyk, “Neutrino-nucleus interaction,”
*Advances in High Energy Physics*. In press. - C. V. Achar, M. G. K. Menon, V. S. Narasimham, P. V. Ramana Murthy, and B. V. Sreekantan, “Detection of muons produced by cosmic ray neutrinos deep underground,”
*Physics Letters*, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 196–199, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - F. Reines, M. F. Crouch, T. L. Jenkins, W. R. Kropp, H. S. Gurr, and G. R. Smith, “Evidence for high-energy cosmic ray neutrino interactions,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 429–433, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - J. C. Pati and A. Salam, “Is Baryon number conserved?”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 661–664, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - H. Georgi and S. L. Galshow, “Unity of all elementary particle forces,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 438–441, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - K. S. Hirata, T. Kajita, M. Koshiba et al., “Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino flux,”
*Physics Letters B*, vol. 205, no. 2-3, pp. 416–420, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - D. Casper, R. Becker-Szendy, C. B. Bratton et al., “Measurement of atmospheric neutrino composition with IMB-3,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 66, pp. 2561–2564, 1991. View at Google Scholar - W. W. M. Allison, G. J. Alner, D. S. Ayres et al., “Measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flavor composition in Soudan-2,”
*Physics Letters B*, vol. 391, pp. 491–500, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - K. S. Hirata, K. Inoue, T. Ishida et al., “Observation of a small atmospheric ${v}_{\mu}/{v}_{e}$ ratio in Kamiokande,”
*Physics Letters B*, vol. 280, no. 1-2, pp. 146–152, 1992. View at Google Scholar - Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, K. Inoue et al., “Atmospheric ${v}_{\mu}/{v}_{e}$ ratio in the multi-GeV energy range,”
*Physics Letters B*, vol. 335, no. 2, pp. 237–245, 1994. View at Google Scholar - Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, E. Ichihara et al., “Evidence for oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1562–1567, 1998. View at Google Scholar - T. Kajita, “Atmospheric neutrino results from Super-Kamiokande and Kamiokande—evidence for
*ν**μ*oscillations,”*Nuclear Physics B*, vol. 77, no. 1–3, pp. 123–132, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - M. Ambrosio, R. Antolinig, C. Aramo et al., “Measurement of the atmospheric neutrino induced upgoing muon flux using MACRO,”
*Physics Letters B*, vol. 434, pp. 451–457, 1998. View at Google Scholar - M. C. Sanchez, W. W. M. Allison, G. J. Alner et al., “Measurement of the L/E distributions of atmospheric neutrinos in Soudan 2 and their interpretation as neutrino oscillations,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 68, no. 11, Article ID 113004, 14 pages, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - Y. Ashie, J. Hosaka, K. Ishihara et al., “A measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters by Super-Kamiokande I,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 71, Article ID 112005, 2005. View at Google Scholar - B. Aharmim, S. Ahmed, T. Andersen et al., “Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the sudbury neutrino observatory,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 80, Article ID 012001, 2009. View at Google Scholar - P. Adamson, T. Alexopoulos, W. Allison et al., “First observations of separated atmospheric ${v}_{\mu}$ and ${\overline{v}}_{\mu}$ events in the MINOS detector,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 73, no. 7, Article ID 072002, 2006. View at Google Scholar - B. Rebel and MINOS Collaboration, “Observation of atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos by the MINOS experiment,” in
*Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics*, Kyoto, Japan, June 2012. - R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, T. Abu-Zayyad et al., “Measurement of the atmospheric neutrino energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 400 TeV with IceCube,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 83, Article ID 012001, 2011. View at Google Scholar - A. Gross and IceCube Collaboration, “Atmospheric neutrino oscillations with Ice-Cube/DeepCore,” in
*Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics*, Kyoto, Japan, June 2012. - Y. Itow, “Atmospheric neutrinos—results from running experiments,” in
*Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics*, Kyoto, Japan, June 2012. - Y. Ashie, J. Hosaka, K. Ishihara et al., “Evidence for an oscillatory signature in atmospheric neutrino oscillation,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 93, no. 10, Article ID 101801, 6 pages, 2004. View at Google Scholar - V. D. Barger, J. G. Learned, S. Pakvasa, and T. J. Weiler, “Neutrino decay as an explanation of atmospheric neutrino observations,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 82, no. 13, pp. 2640–2643, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - V. D. Barger, J. G. Learned, P. Lipari, M. Lusignoli, S. Pakvasa, and T. J. Weiler, “Neutrino decay and atmospheric neutrinos,”
*Physics Letters B*, vol. 462, no. 1-2, pp. 109–114, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - Y. Grossman and M. P. Worah, “Atmospheric nu/mu deficit from decoherence”.
- E. Lisi, A. Marrone, and D. Montanino, “Probing possible decoherence effects in atmospheric neutrino oscillations,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1166–1169, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - P. Adamson, C. Andreopoulos, R. Armstrong et al., “Measurement of the neutrino mass splitting and flavor mixing by MINOS,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 106, Article ID 181801, 2011. View at Google Scholar - K. Abe, Y. Hayato, T. Iida et al., “A measurement of the appearance of atmospheric tau neutrinos by super-kamiokande,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.0328.
- F. P. An, J. Z. Bai, A. B. Balantekin et al., “Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 108, Article ID 171803, 7 pages, 2012. View at Google Scholar - J. K. Ahn, S. Chebotaryov, J. H. Choi et al., “Observation of reactor electron antineutrino disappearance in the RENO experiment,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 108, Article ID 191802, 6 pages, 2012. View at Google Scholar - Y. Abe, C. Aberle, T. Akiri et al., “Indication for the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos in the Double Chooz experiment,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 108, Article ID 131802, 2012. View at Google Scholar - K. Abe, N. Abgrall, Y. Ajima et al., “Indication of electron neutrino appearance from an accelerator-produced off-axis Muon Neutrino Beam,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 107, Article ID 041801, 2011. View at Google Scholar - P. Adamson, D. J. Auty, D. S. Ayres et al., “Improved search for muon-neutrino to electronneutrino oscillations in MINOS,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 107, Article ID 181802, 2011. View at Google Scholar - K. Abe, Y. Hayato, T. Iida et al., “A measurement of atmospheric neutrino flux consistent with tau neutrino appearance,”
*Physical Review Letters*, vol. 97, Article ID 171801, 2006. View at Google Scholar - G. L. Fogli, E. Lisi, A. Marrone, D. Montanino, A. Palazzo, and A. M. Rotunno, “Global analysis of neutrino masses, mixings and phases: entering the era of leptonic CP violation searches,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 86, no. 1, Article ID 013012, 10 pages, 2012. View at Google Scholar - G. L. Fogli, E. Lisi, A. Marrone, and A. Palazzo, “Global analysis of three-flavor neutrino masses and mixings,”
*Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics*, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 742–795, 2006. View at Google Scholar - K. Abe, T. Abe, H. Aihara et al., “Letter of intent: the hyper-kamiokande experiment—detector design and physics potential,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1109.3262.
- S. Choubey, “Future of atmospheric neutrino measurements,” in
*Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics*, Kyoto, Japan, June 2012. - M. S. Athar, INO Collaboration et al., “India-based Neutrino Observatory: Project Report,” Volume I., INO-2006-01.
- D. J. Koskinen, “IceCube-DeepCore-PINGU: fundamental neutrino and dark matter physics at the South Pole,”
*Modern Physics Letters A*, vol. 26, pp. 2899–2915, 2011. View at Google Scholar - D. R. Grant, “(IceCube/PINGU Collaboration), ‘Extending IceCube-DeepCore with PINGU’,” in
*Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics*, Kyoto, Japan, June 2012. - E. Kh. Akhmedov, S. Razzaque, and A. Yu. Smirnov, “Mass hierarchy, 2-3 mixing and CP-phase with huge atmospheric neutrino detectors,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.7071.
- T. Kajita and P. Lipari, “Atmospheric neutrinos and neutrino oscillations,”
*Comptes Rendus Physique*, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 739–748, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - K. Abe, N. Abgrall, Y. Ajima et al., “First Muon-Neutrino disappearance study with an off-axis beam,”
*Physical Review D*, vol. 85, Article ID 031103, 2012. View at Google Scholar