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Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2013, Article ID 425746, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/425746
Research Article

Charge Coupled Devices as Particle Detectors

1Physics Department, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
2Section of Science and Technology of Information, Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, 050094 Bucharest, Romania

Received 1 October 2012; Accepted 10 February 2013

Academic Editor: Jacek Szabelski

Copyright © 2013 Dan A. Iordache et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

As it is well known, while the most important advantages of the charge coupled devices, as high energy particle detectors are related to their (a) extremely high sensitivity (very important for the underground laboratories, also) and (b) huge number of very small independent components (pixels) of the magnitude order of , which allow the separate impressions of many different “signatures” of (silicon lattice defects produced by) these particles, their main disadvantages refer to the (a) difficulty to distinguish between the capture traps (of free electrons and holes, resp.) produced by the radiation particles and the numerous types of traps due to the contamination or dopants and (b) huge number of types of lattice defects due to the irradiation. For these reasons, this work achieves a state of art of the (i) main experimental methods and (ii) physical parameters intended to the characterization of the main types of traps embedded in the silicon lattice of CCDs. There were identified also some new physical parameters useful in this aim, as the polarization degree of capture cross-sections and the state character, as well as some new useful notions, as the trans-Fermi level capture states.