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Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2015, Article ID 349013, 20 pages
Review Article

Freeze-Out Parameters in Heavy-Ion Collisions at AGS, SPS, RHIC, and LHC Energies

1School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005, India
2Theoretical Physics Division, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064, India
3Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, India
4Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
5Indian Institute of Technology, Indore 452017, India
6University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

Received 26 July 2014; Revised 17 September 2014; Accepted 18 September 2014

Academic Editor: Bhartendu K. Singh

Copyright © 2015 Sandeep Chatterjee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.


We review the chemical and kinetic freeze-out conditions in high energy heavy-ion collisions for AGS, SPS, RHIC, and LHC energies. Chemical freeze-out parameters are obtained using produced particle yields in central collisions while the corresponding kinetic freeze-out parameters are obtained using transverse momentum distributions of produced particles. For chemical freeze-out, different freeze-out scenarios are discussed such as single and double/flavor dependent freeze-out surfaces. Kinetic freeze-out parameters are obtained by doing hydrodynamic inspired blast wave fit to the transverse momentum distributions. The beam energy and centrality dependence of transverse energy per charged particle multiplicity are studied to address the constant energy per particle freeze-out criteria in heavy-ion collisions.