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Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2017, Article ID 1453045, 14 pages
Review Article

Experimental Results on Charge Fluctuations in Heavy-Ion Collisions

1Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085, India
2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to D. K. Mishra; vog.lnb.cihr.fcr@arhsimkd

Received 7 September 2016; Revised 29 November 2016; Accepted 30 November 2016; Published 17 January 2017

Academic Editor: Shi-Hai Dong

Copyright © 2017 D. K. Mishra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.


We present a subset of experimental results on charge fluctuation from the heavy-ion collisions to search for phase transition and location of critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Measurements from the heavy-ion experiments at the SPS and RHIC energies observe that total charge fluctuations increase from central to peripheral collisions. The net-charge fluctuations in terms of dynamical fluctuation measure are studied as a function of collision energy () and centrality of the collisions. The product of and shows a monotonic decrease with collision energies, which indicates that at LHC energy the fluctuations have their origin in the QGP phase. The fluctuations in terms of higher moments of net-proton, net-electric charge, and net-kaon have been measured for various . Deviations are observed in both and for net-proton multiplicity distributions from the Skellam and hadron resonance gas model for  GeV. Higher moment results of the net-electric charge and net-kaon do not observe any significant nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. We also discuss the extraction of the freeze-out parameters using particle ratios and experimentally measured higher moments of net-charge fluctuations. The extracted freeze-out parameters from experimentally measured moments and lattice calculations are found to be in agreement with the results obtained from the fit of particle ratios to the thermal model calculations.