Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9240170, 17 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9240170
Review Article

Experimental Results on Chiral Magnetic and Vortical Effects

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Gang Wang; ude.alcu.scisyhp@gnawg

Received 11 September 2016; Accepted 1 December 2016; Published 12 January 2017

Academic Editor: Declan Keane

Copyright © 2017 Gang Wang and Liwen Wen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.

Linked References

  1. D. E. Kharzeev, L. D. McLerran, and H. J. Warringa, “The effects of topological charge change in heavy ion collisions: ‘event by event P and CP violation’,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 803, no. 3-4, pp. 227–253, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Kharzeev, “Parity violation in hot QCD: why it can happen, and how to look for it,” Physics Letters B, vol. 633, no. 2-3, pp. 260–264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. D. Kharzeev and A. Zhitnitsky, “Charge separation induced by P-odd bubbles in QCD matter,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 797, no. 1-2, pp. 67–79, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Kharzeev, A. Krasnitz, and R. Venugopalan, “Anomalous chirality fluctuations in the initial stage of heavy ion collisions and parity odd bubbles,” Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, vol. 545, no. 3-4, pp. 298–306, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  5. I. Iatrakis, S. Lin, and Y. Yin, “Axial current generation by p-odd domains in QCD matter,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 114, no. 25, Article ID 252301, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. K. Fukushima, D. E. Kharzeev, and H. J. Warringa, “Real-time dynamics of the chiral magnetic effect,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 104, no. 21, Article ID 212001, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. M. Poskanzer and S. A. Voloshin, “Methods for analyzing anisotropic flow in relativistic nuclear collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 1671–1678, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. E. Kharzeev and D. T. Son, “Testing the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical effects in heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 106, no. 6, Article ID 062301, 4 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. D.  T. Son and A. R. Zhitnitsky, “Quantum anomalies in dense matter,” Physical Review D, vol. 70, no. 7, Article ID 074018, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. A. Metlitski and A. R. Zhitnitsky, “Anomalous axion interactions and topological currents in dense matter,” Physical Review D, vol. 72, no. 4, Article ID 045011, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. Y. Burnier, D. E. Kharzeev, J. Liao, and H.-U. Yee, “Chiral magnetic wave at finite baryon density and the electric quadrupole moment of the quark-gluon plasma,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 107, no. 5, Article ID 052303, 4 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. M. Newman, “Anomalous hydrodynamics,” Journal of High Energy Physics, vol. 0601, article 158, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. X. G. Huang and J. Liao, “Axial current generation from electric field: chiral electric separation effect,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 110, no. 23, Article ID 232302, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. Jiang, X. G. Huang, and J. Liao, “Chiral electric separation effect in the quark-gluon plasma,” Physical Review D, vol. 91, no. 4, Article ID 045001, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. Y. Jiang, X. G. Huang, and J. Liao, “Chiral vortical wave and induced flavor charge transport in a rotating quark-gluon plasma,” Physical Review D, vol. 92, no. 7, Article ID 071501, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. D. E. Kharzeev, J. Liao, S. A. Voloshin, and G. Wang, “Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions—a status report,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 88, pp. 1–28, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. A. Bzdak and V. Skokov, “Event-by-event fluctuations of magnetic and electric fields in heavy ion collisions,” Physics Letters B, vol. 710, no. 1, pp. 171–174, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. T. Deng and X. G. Huang, “Event-by-event generation of electromagnetic fields in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 85, no. 4, Article ID 044907, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. W. T. Deng and X. G. Huang, “Electric fields and chiral magnetic effect in Cu + Au collisions,” Physics Letters B, vol. 742, pp. 296–302, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. J. Bloczynski, X.-G. Huang, X. Zhang, and J. Liao, “Azimuthally fluctuating magnetic field and its impacts on observables in heavy-ion collisions,” Physics Letters B, vol. 718, no. 4-5, pp. 1529–1535, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. McLerran and V. Skokov, “Comments about the electromagnetic field in heavy-ion collisions,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 929, pp. 184–190, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Guo, S. Shi, N. Xu, Z. Xu, and P. Zhuang, “Magnetic field effect on charmonium production in high energy nuclear collisions,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1502.04407.
  23. U. Gürsoy, D. Kharzeev, and K. Rajagopal, “Magnetohydrodynamics, charged currents, and directed flow in heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 89, no. 5, Article ID 054905, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. K. Tuchin, “Particle production in strong electromagnetic fields in relativistic heavy-ion collisions,” Advances in High Energy Physics, vol. 2013, Article ID 490495, 34 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. Y. Hirono, M. Hongo, and T. Hirano, “Estimation of the electric conductivity of the quark gluon plasma via asymmetric heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 90, no. 2, Article ID 021903, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. V. Voronyuk, V. D. Toneev, S. A. Voloshin, and W. Cassing, “Charge-dependent directed flow in asymmetric nuclear collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 90, no. 6, Article ID 064903, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev et al., “Charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.04100.
  28. B. I. Abelev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed et al., “System-size independence of directed flow measured at the BNL relativistic heavy-ion collider,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 101, no. 25, Article ID 252301, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. Y. Jiang, Z. W. Lin, and J. Liao, “Rotating quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 94, no. 4, Article ID 044910, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. I. Baznat, K. K. Gudima, A. S. Sorin, and O. V. Teryaev, “Femto-vortex sheets and hyperon polarization in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 93, no. 3, Article ID 031902, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. F. Becattini, G. Inghirami, V. Rolando et al., “A study of vorticity formation in high energy nuclear collisions,” The European Physical Journal C, vol. 75, article 406, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. F. Becattini, L. Csernai, and D. J. Wang, “Λ polarization in peripheral heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 88, no. 3, Article ID 034905, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. S. Floerchinger and U. A. Wiedemann, “Fluctuations around Bjorken Flow and the onset of turbulent phenomena,” Journal of High Energy Physics, vol. 11, p. 100, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. H. Gao, B. Qi, and S. Y. Wang, “Vorticity and magnetic field production in relativistic ideal fluids,” Physical Review D, vol. 90, no. 8, Article ID 083001, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. I. Upsal, “Observation of global hyperon polarization in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 736, Article ID 012016, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. STAR Collaboration, STAR Note 0598, https://drupal.star.bnl.gov/STAR/starnotes/public/sn0598.
  37. A. H. Tang and G. Wang, “Procedure for measuring photon and vector meson circular polarization variation with respect to the reaction plane in relativistic heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 94, no. 2, Article ID 024920, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. Y. Hirono, D. E. Kharzeev, and Y. Yin, “Self-similar inverse cascade of magnetic helicity driven by the chiral anomaly,” Physical Review D, vol. 92, no. 12, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. Ipp, A. Di Piazza, J. Evers, and C. H. Keitel, “Photon polarization as a probe for quark-gluon plasma dynamics,” Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, vol. 666, no. 4, pp. 315–319, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. K. A. Mamo and H.-U. Yee, “Spin polarized photons and dileptons from axially charged plasma,” Physical Review D, vol. 88, no. 11, Article ID 114029, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. K. A. Mamo and H.-U. Yee, “Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: complete leading order,” Physical Review D, vol. 93, no. 6, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  42. Z.-T. Liang and X.-N. Wang, “Globally Polarized Quark-Gluon Plasma in Noncentral A+A Collisions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 94, no. 10, Article ID 102301, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. M. Baznat, K. Gudima, A. Sorin, and O. Teryaev, “Helicity separation in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 88, no. 6, Article ID 061901, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W.-T. Deng and X.-G. Huang, “Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 93, no. 6, Article ID 064907, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev et al., “Fluctuations of charge separation perpendicular to the event plane and local parity violation in sNN=200 GeV Au + Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider,” Physical Review C, vol. 88, no. 6, Article ID 064911, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. B. I. Abelev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed et al., “Azimuthal charged-particle correlations and possible local strong parity violation,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 103, no. 25, Article ID 251601, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. B. I. Abelev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed et al., “Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 81, no. 5, Article ID 54908, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev et al., “Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 113, no. 1, Article ID 052302, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. B. I. Abelev, J. Adam, D. Adamová et al., “Charge separation relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 110, no. 1, Article ID 012301, 11 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. R. L. Ray and R. S. Longacre, “MEVSIM: a monte carlo event generator for STAR,” https://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-ex/0008009.
  51. F. Wen, L. Wen, and G. Wang, “Procedure for removing flow backgrounds from the charge-separation observable perpendicular to the reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.03205.
  52. G. Wang, “Search for chiral magnetic effects in high-energy nuclear collisions,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 904-905, pp. 248c–255c, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. P. Tribedy, “Charge sensitive cumulants and flow in U + U collisions from STAR,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Chirality, Vorticity and Magnetic Field in Heavy Ion Collisions, 2016, https://drupal.star.bnl.gov/STAR/files/talk_43.pdf.
  54. V. Skokov, P. Sorensen, V. Koch et al., “Chiral magnetic effect task force report,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.00982.
  55. S. A. Voloshin, “Parity violation in hot QCD: how to detect it,” Physical Review C, vol. 70, no. 5, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. A. Bzdak, V. Koch, and J. Liao, “Remarks on possible local parity violation in heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 81, no. 3, Article ID 031901, 4 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. N. N. Ajitanand, S. Esumi, and R. A. Lacey, “P- and CP-odd ects in hot and dense matter,” in Proceedings of the RBRC Workshops, vol. 96, p. 230, 2010.
  58. R. A. Lacey, R. Wei, J. Jia, N. N. Ajitanand, J. M. Alexander, and A. Taranenko, “Initial eccentricity fluctuations and their relation to higher-order flow harmonics,” Physical Review C, vol. 83, no. 4, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. N. N. Ajitanand, “Application of a multi-particle correlation method to detect charge asymmetry in 200 GeV Au + Au Collisions,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Chirality, Vorticity and Magnetic Field in Heavy Ion Collisions, 2016, https://drupal.star.bnl.gov/STAR/files/Ajit_Parity_Star_chirality_1.pdf.
  60. S. A. Bass, M. Belkacem, M. Bleicher et al., “Microscopic models for ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 41, pp. 255–369, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. M. Gyulassy and X.-N. Wang, “HIJING 1.0: a Monte Carlo program for parton and particle production in high energy hadronic and nuclear collisions,” Computer Physics Communications, vol. 83, no. 2-3, pp. 307–331, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. F. Zhao, “ΛKS0-h± and Λ-p azimuthal correlations with respect to event plane and search for chiral magnetic and vortical effects,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 931, pp. 746–751, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev et al., “Measurement of charge multiplicity asymmetry correlations in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at sNN=200 GeV,” Physical Review C, vol. 89, no. 4, Article ID 044908, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. A. Bzdak, V. Koch, and J. Liao, “Azimuthal correlations from transverse momentum conservation and possible local parity violation,” Physical Review C, vol. 83, no. 1, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. S. Pratt, S. Schlichting, and S. Gavin, “Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider,” Physical Review C, vol. 84, no. 2, Article ID 024909, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. A. Bzdak, V. Koch, and J. Liao, “Charge-dependent correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions and the chiral magnetic effect,” in Strongly Interacting Matter in Magnetic Fields, vol. 871 of Lecture Notes in Physics, pp. 503–536, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. S. Schlichting and S. Pratt, “Charge conservation at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and contributions to local parity violation observables,” Physical Review C, vol. 83, no. 1, Article ID 014913, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. B. Alver, B. B. Back, M. D. Baker et al., “Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions measured with the PHOBOS detector in Au + Au, Cu + Cu, d + Au, and p + p collisions at ultrarelativistic energies,” Physical Review C, vol. 83, no. 2, Article ID 024913, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. B. B. Back, M. D. Baker, M. Ballintijn et al., “Centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow for charged hadrons in Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV,” Physical Review C, vol. 72, no. 5, Article ID 051901, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. B. Zhang, C. M. Ko, B.-A. Li, and Z.-W. Lin, “Multiphase transport model for relativistic nuclear collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 61, no. 6, Article ID 067901, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. Z.-W. Lin, C. M. Ko, B.-A. Li, and B. Zhang, “Multiphase transport model for relativistic heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 72, no. 6, Article ID 064901, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. Z. -W. Lin and C. M. Ko, “Partonic effects on the elliptic flow at relativistic heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 65, no. 3, Article ID 034904, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. CMS Collaboration, “Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in pPb collisions and its implication for the search for the chiral magnetic effect,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.00263.
  74. A. Kuhlman and U. Heinz, “Multiplicity distribution and source deformation in full-overlap U+U collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 72, no. 3, Article ID 037901, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. S. A. Voloshin, “Testing the chiral magnetic effect with central U + U collisions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 105, no. 17, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev et al., “Azimuthal Anisotropy in U + U and Au + Au Collisions at RHIC,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 115, no. 22, Article ID 222301, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. J. Bloczynski, X.-G. Huang, X. Zhang, and J. Liao, “Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu to UU collisions,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 939, pp. 85–100, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. A. Voloshin, “Collective phenomena in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions: anisotropic flow and more,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 541–546, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. S. A. Voloshin, “Results on flow from the ALICE Collaboration,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 904-905, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev et al., “Observation of charge asymmetry dependence of pion elliptic flow and the possible chiral magnetic wave in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 114, no. 25, Article ID 252302, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. Y. Burnier, D. E. Kharzeev, J. Liao, and H.-U. Yee, “From the chiral magnetic wave to the charge dependence of elliptic flow,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1208.2537.
  82. The ALICE Collaboration, “Charge-dependent flow and the search for the chiral magnetic wave in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV,” Physical Review C, vol. 93, no. 4, Article ID 044903, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. W. Deng, X. Huang, G. Ma, and G. Wang, “Testing the chiral magnetic effect with isobaric collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 94, no. 4, Article ID 041901, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. E. V. Gorbar, V. A. Miransky, I. A. Shovkovy, and X. Wang, “Radiative corrections to chiral separation effect in QED,” Physical Review D—Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 88, no. 2, Article ID 025025, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. C. Dunlop, M. A. Lisa, and P. Sorensen, “Constituent quark scaling violation due to baryon number transport,” Physical Review C, vol. 84, no. 4, Article ID 044914, 6 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. J. Xu, L. Chen, C. M. Ko, and Z. Lin, “Effects of hadronic potentials on elliptic flows in relativistic heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 85, no. 4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev et al., “Observation of an energy-dependent difference in elliptic flow between particles and antiparticles in relativistic heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 110, no. 14, Article ID 142301, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. J. M. Campbell and M. A. Lisa, “Can baryon stopping explain the breakdown of constituent quark scaling and proposed signals of chiral magnetic waves at RHIC?” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 446, Article ID 012014, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. H. Yee and Y. Yin, “Realistic implementation of chiral magnetic wave in heavy ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 89, no. 4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. S. A. Voloshin and R. Belmont, “Measuring and interpreting charge dependent anisotropic flow,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 931, pp. 992–996, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. Bzdak and P. Bozek, “Contributions to the event-by-event charge asymmetry dependence for the elliptic flow of π+ and π- in heavy-ion collisions,” Physics Letters B, vol. 726, no. 1–3, pp. 239–243, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. Q.-Y. Shou, “Charge asymmetry dependence of π/Kπ/K anisotropic flow in Au+AuAu+Au and U+UU+U collisions at RHIC,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 931, pp. 758–762, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. Y. Hatta, A. Monnai, and B.-W. Xiao, “Elliptic flow difference of charged pions in heavy-ion collisions,” Nuclear Physics A, vol. 947, pp. 155–160, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. Q.-Y. Shou, “Charge asymmetry dependence of K v2 in Au+Au collisions at STAR,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Chirality, Vorticity and Magnetic Field in Heavy Ion Collisions, February 2016, http://starmeetings.physics.ucla.edu/sites/default/files/qiye_shou.pdf.
  95. J. Schukraft, A. Timmins, and S. A. Voloshin, “Ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions: event shape engineering,” Physics Letters B, vol. 719, no. 4-5, pp. 394–398, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J.-Y. Ollitrault, A. M. Poskanzer, and S. A. Voloshin, “Effect of flow fluctuations and nonflow on elliptic flow methods,” Physical Review C, vol. 80, no. 1, Article ID 014904, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. S. Raman, C. W. Nestor Jr., and P. Tikkanen, “Transition probability from the ground to the first-excited 2+ state of even–even nuclides,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 1–128, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. B. Pritychenko, M. Birch, B. Singh, and M. Horoi, “Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, vol. 107, pp. 1–139, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. P. Möller, J. R. Nix, W. D. Myers, and W. J. Swiatecki, “Nuclear ground-state masses and deformations,” Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 185–381, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. W. Deng and X. Huang, “Event-by-event generation of electromagnetic fields in heavy-ion collisions,” Physical Review C, vol. 85, no. 4, Article ID 044907, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar