Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in High Energy Physics
Volume 2018, Article ID 7843730, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7843730
Research Article

Quaternionic Approach to Dual Magnetohydrodynamics of Dyonic Cold Plasma

Department of Physics, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145, India

Correspondence should be addressed to B. C. Chanyal; moc.liamg@laynahccb

Received 23 June 2018; Accepted 7 August 2018; Published 14 August 2018

Academic Editor: Antonio J. Accioly

Copyright © 2018 B. C. Chanyal and Mayank Pathak. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP3.

Abstract

The dual magnetohydrodynamics of dyonic plasma describes the study of electrodynamics equations along with the transport equations in the presence of electrons and magnetic monopoles. In this paper, we formulate the quaternionic dual fields equations, namely, the hydroelectric and hydromagnetic fields equations which are an analogous to the generalized Lamb vector field and vorticity field equations of dyonic cold plasma fluid. Further, we derive the quaternionic Dirac-Maxwell equations for dual magnetohydrodynamics of dyonic cold plasma. We also obtain the quaternionic dual continuity equations that describe the transport of dyonic fluid. Finally, we establish an analogy of Alfven wave equation which may generate from the flow of magnetic monopoles in the dyonic field of cold plasma. The present quaternionic formulation for dyonic cold plasma is well invariant under the duality, Lorentz, and CPT transformations.

1. Introduction

In the past few decades, astronomers predicted that the universe was composed almost entirely of the baryonic matter (ordinary matter). According to Bachynski [1], more than 99% of the matter in the universe is in plasma state. This type of matter may consist of baryonic and nonbaryonic matter. The first experimental evidence of the existence of plasma was given by American Physicists [2]. In plasma, consisting of charged and neutral particles, the interionic force between particles shows electromagnetic in nature. Therefore, due to the long range order of Coulomb force charged particles interact with all other charged particles resulting in a collective behavior of plasma. In 1942, Alfven [3] gave the theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and suggested that electrically conducting fluid can support the propagation of shear waves called the Alfven waves. Basically, MHD describes the behavior of electrically conducting fluid in the presence of magnetic field [4]. It is macroscopic theory that assumes the electrons, ions, and charged particles move together and treated them as a single fluid component known as single fluid theory. The plasma along with MHD is simply described by a single temperature, velocity, and density. However, when the MHD wave propagates faster than plasma thermal speed then the effect of temperature can be neglected [5]. This is called a cold plasma approximation (i.e., in cold plasma approximation, temperature does not take into account). In this approximation, there is no wave related to pressure fluctuation (e.g., sound waves). On the other hand, the hot and warm plasmas are another sates of plasma where the collision between electrons and gas molecules are so frequent that there is a thermal equilibrium between electron and the gas molecules.

Meyer-Vernet [6] discussed the role of magnetic monopole in conducting fluid (plasma). The magnetic monopole proposed by Dirac [7], is a hypothetical elementary particle having only one magnetic pole. Dirac also pointed out that if there exists any monopole in the universe then all the electric charge in the universe will be quantized [8]. Schwinger [9, 10], an exception to the argument against the existence of monopole, formulated relativistically covariant quantum field theory of magnetic monopoles which maintained complete symmetry between electric and magnetic fields. Therefore, the name of particles carrying simultaneously the electric and magnetic charges is dyons. Further, the theoretical approach of Schwinger [9, 10] and Zwanziger [11] describes the theory of dyonic particles. Peres [12] pointed out the controversial nature [13] of the singular lines of magnetic monopoles and established the charged quantization condition in purely group theoretical manner without using them. In view of mathematical physics, the study of four-dimensional particles (dyons) in distinguish mediums can be explained by division algebras. There are four types of divisions algebras [14], namely, the real, complex, quaternion, and octonion algebras. The complex algebra is an extension of real numbers; the quaternion is an extension of complex numbers while the octonion is an extension of quaternions. Quaternionic algebra [15] can also express by the four-dimensional Euclidean spaces [16, 17], and it has vast applications in the multiple branches of physics.

Further, Rajput [18] pointed out an effective unified theory for quaternionic generalized electromagnetic and gravitational fields of dyons by using the quaternion algebra. The quaternionic form of classical and quantum electrodynamics has been already discussed [1922]. Many authors [2329] have studied the role of hypercomplex algebras in various branches of physics. Recently, Chanyal [30, 31] independently proposed a novel approach on the quaternionic covariant theory for relativistic quantum mechanics and established the quantized Dirac-Maxwell equations for dyons. Besides, in literature [3234], the reformulation of incompressible plasma fluids and MHD equations has been discussed in terms of hypercomplex numbers. Keeping in view the importance of quaternionic algebras, we establish the MHD field equations for dyonic cold plasma. Starting with the definitions of one-fluid and two-fluid theory of plasma, we identify the cold plasma approximation where the thermal effects (or pressure effects) of conducting fluid will be neglected. Further, we introduce the dual MHD equations of dyonic plasma consisted with electrons, magnetic monopoles, and their counter partners, namely, ions and magnetoions. In this study, we clarify that the dominating aspect for the dyonic cold plasma approximation is the dynamics of electrons along with magnetic monopoles. As we know the generalized Dirac-Maxwell like equations are primary equations to explain the dynamics of dyonic cold plasma. Therefore, undertaking the quaternionic dual-velocity and dual-enthalpy of dyonic cold plasma, we have made an attempt to formulate the quaternionic hydroelectric and hydromagnetic fields equations, which are an analogous to the generalized Lamb vector field and vorticity field of conducting dyonic fluid. The Lorenz gauge conditions for dyonic cold plasma fluid are also obtained. Further, we derive the generalized quaternionic Dirac-Maxwell equations to the case of dual magnetohydrodynamics of dyonic cold plasma. We have discussed that these Dirac-Maxwell equations for dyonic cold plasma are well invariant under the duality, Lorentz, and CPT transformations. Finally, the Alfven wave like equation is established which may propagate from the flow of magnetic monopoles in the dyonic cold plasma.

2. The Quaternions

Through the extension of the set of natural numbers to the integers, a complex number is defined by the set of all real linear combinations of the unit elements , such thatwhere the real number is called the real part and is called the imaginary part of a complex number . If the real part , then we can say that is purely imaginary. As such, the Euclidean scalar product as is then defined bywhere and are two complex numbers. The modulus of any complex number is also defined by .

However, a complex field is a finite dimensional real vector space, so that we can easily extend the complex number into the quaternionic field by losing the commutativity of multiplication. Thus, the quaternion represents the natural extension of complex numbers and forms an algebra under addition and multiplication. Hamilton [15] described a four-dimensional quaternionic algebra and applied it to mechanics in three-dimensional space. A striking feature of quaternions is that the product of two quaternions is noncommutative, meaning that the product of two quaternions depends on which factor is to the left of the multiplication sign and which factor is to the right.

Thus the allowed four-dimensional Hamilton vector space is defined by quaternion algebra over the field of real numbers aswhere the Hamilton vector space () has the quaternionic elements (, , , and ), which are called quaternion basis elements while , , , and are the real quarterate of a quaternion. As such the addition of two quaternions and is given byHere, the quaternionic addition is clearly associative and commutative. The additive identity element is defined by the zero element; i.e.,and the additive inverse of is given byCorrespondingly, the product of two quaternions, i.e., , can be expressed byWe may notice that this quaternionic product is associative, but not commutative. The quaternionic unit elements followed the given relations,where is the delta symbol and is the Levi Civita three-index symbol having value for cyclic permutation, for anticyclic permutation, and for any two repeated indices. Further, we also may write the following relations to quaternion basis elementswhere the brackets and are used, respectively, for commutation and the anticommutation relations. Thus the above multiplication rules governed the ordinary dot and cross product; i.e.,where we take for noncommutative product of quaternion. The quaternionic product with the scalar quantity is given byAs such, the multiplication identity element can expressed by the unit elements,Moreover, a quaternion can also be decomposed in terms of scalar and vector parts aswhere the quaternionic conjugate is expressed byThe real and imaginary parts of can be written asIf and , then is said to be purely imaginary quaternions. Therefore, all quaternions with zero real are simplified as imaginary space of , where the imaginary space is a three-dimensional real vector space,Interestingly, we may write the following form of quaternion asThe quaternionic Euclidean scalar product can also be expressed asLike complex numbers, the modulus of quaternion is then defined asSince there exists the norm of a quaternion, we have a division; i.e., every has an inverse of a quaternion and is expressed asThe quaternion conjugation satisfies the following property:The norm of the quaternion is positive definite and obeys the composition lawThe quaternion elements are non-Abelian in nature and thus represent a noncommutative division ring. Quaternion is an important fundamental mathematical tool appropriate for four-dimensional world.

3. Magnetohydrodynamics of Cold Plasma

Let us start with the basic parameters of the plasma. As we know that the plasma exists in many more forms in nature which has a wide spread use in the science and technology. The theory of plasma is divided into three categories [35], namely, the microscopic theory, kinetic theory, and the fluid theory. In briefly, the microscopic theory is based on the motion of all the individual particles (e.g., electrons, ions, atoms, molecules, and radicals). According to Klimontovich [36], the time evolution of the particle density () is expressed bywhere is the velocity of particles, (, ) are the effective charge and mass of the species particles, and (, ) are the electric and magnetic field produced by the microscopic particles. Besides, the collisionless kinetic theory of plasma proposed by Vlasov [37], which has included the Boltzmann distribution function as [35], is as follows:In (25) and (26), we may consider that the two dominating particles (i.e., electrons and ions both) constitute the dynamics of plasma, called the two-fluid theory of plasma [3538]. For the two-fluid theory of plasma, at a given position (), the mass and charge densities becomewhere , and are defined as the mass, total number, and charge of electrons while , and are defined as the mass, total number, and charge of ions, respectively. The center of mass fluid velocity can be expressed asand the current density becomesThe continuity equations can be written asAs such, the momentum equation for plasma fluid is expressed as [35]where is the pressure force introduced due to the inhomogeneity of the plasma and is a Lorentz force per unit volume element. Now, we introduce an acceleration to the conducting fluid,where the term is used for the convective acceleration of fluid. Furthermore, the generalized Ohm’s law becomes [35]where denotes the conductivity of fluid. One can define Maxwell’s equations with natural unit () asInterestingly, if we combine together the conducting fluidic field and electromagnetic field then the relevant theory comes out which is called MHD. The MHD of cold plasma is an approximation theory of fluid dynamics where we neglect temperature effect and combine the electron equation with ionic equation to form a one-fluid model [39]. For the cold plasma model, many researchers [40, 41] suggested that, at a given position, all particle-species (mostly ions and electrons) have comparable temperatures (), energies () (equivalent to masses), and velocities (). It follows that the fluid velocity is identical for particle velocity. Now, we may summarize the following conditions for the cold plasma approximation, i.e.,We consider that the effected behavior of electrons are comparable to the ions, while their temperatures and pressure-gradients are taken negligible in case of homogeneous cold plasmas. Thus, using approximation (40), the average mass and charge densities to cold plasma are expressed asAs such, the Navier-Stokes and Ohm’s equations becomewhere to the case if the current is small compared to . The ideal MHD equations () for cold plasma may then be expressed asTo consider wave behavior of cold particles, the cold plasma wave has temperature independent dispersion relation. If is Alfven velocity, then the dispersion relation for cold plasma waves become [35] Interestingly, the cold plasma waves propagate like as Alfven waves which are independent of temperature.

4. Dual MHD Equations for Dyonic Cold Plasma

The dual MHD field not only consists of electrons and ions but also has the magnetic monopole and their ionic partners magnetoions [42]. Generally, the composition of an electron and a magnetic monopole referred a dyon [25]. In this study, we may neglect the magnetoionic contribution like ions to continue the dyonic cold plasma approximations. Dirac [8] proposed the symmetrized field equations by postulating the existence of magnetic monopoles; i.e.,In the above generalized Dirac-Maxwell’s equations, and are the electric and magnetic charge densities while and are the corresponding current densities. To study the dyonic cold plasma field, there are a couple of masses and charges species in presence of dyons. Thus, the generalized dual densities (mass and charge densities) may be expressed for one-fluid theory of dyonic cold plasma aswhere , and are defined as the mass, total number, and charge of magnetic monopoles, respectively. As such, we can express the center of mass velocity of dyonic fluid in cold plasma aswhereupon the dual-current densities (electric and magnetic) are defined byThe conservation laws for the dynamics of dyonic cold plasma can be written asThe generalized Navier-Stokes force equation can also be exhibited in presence of magnetic monopole; i.e.,where the duality invariant Lorentz force equation for dyons isand the dyonic pressure gradient term is negligible to the case of cold plasma approximation. Conditionally, if the influence of dyonic current is small then the force equation can be written asIn the same way, Ohm’s law for the dyonic cold plasma is expressed aswhere is the magnetic conductivity. Therefore, from (63) to (64), we can conclude that for infinite conductivity of dyons () the electric and magnetic field vectors constitute from the rotation of each other, i.e., , and . The above classical field equations given by (49) to (64) of dyons are referred to dual MHD field equations of dyonic cold plasma.

5. Quaternionic Formulation to Dual Fields of Dyonic Cold Plasma

In order to write the dual MHD field equations for dyonic cold plasma, we may start with quaternionic two-velocity () and two-enthalpy () of dyons for plasma fluid dynamics aswhere () are quaternionic variables associated with two four-velocities of electrons and magnetic monopoles of dyons and denoted the speed of particles (dyons) moving in conducting cold plasma. Here, we have taken the two-enthalpy of dyons, i.e., the internal energy of dyons associated with electrons and magnetic monopoles. Like many physicists [32, 43, 44], there is an analogy between the electromagnetic and hydrodynamic. Thus, we may write the analogy of two four-potentials () of dyons aswhere the vector components are analogous to electric and magnetic vector potentials of dyons while the scalar components (, ) are analogous to their scalar potentials. It should be notice that the role of quaternionic two four-velocities of dyonic fluid in generalized hydrodynamics of cold plasma is the same as the quaternionic two four-potentials of dyons in generalized electrodynamics. Now, we may summarize the dyonic potentials corresponding to its fluid behavior in Table 1.

Table 1: Analogies between electrodynamics and hydrodynamics in presence of dyons.

The unified structure of quaternionic two four-velocities () for the generalized fields of dyonic cold plasma can be written asand it reduces towhere and are dyonic fluid-velocity and dyonic enthalpy in cold plasma, respectively. Here, the scalar component () represents the amount of dyonic internal energy required to move one kilogram of the fluid element. Now, to formulate the quaternionic dual MHD field equations for dyonic cold plasma, it is necessary to define quaternionic space-time differential operator asand its quaternionic conjugate isThe quaternionic product of will bewhere or is defined by the D’ Alembert operator . In order to emphasize the variation of quaternionic space-time to two four-velocities of dyonic fluid plasma, we may operate the quaternionic differential operator () on generalized two four-velocities () asEquation (74) governed the following quaternionic hydrodynamics field equation for dyonic cold plasma, i.e.,where and are the vector and scalar fields connected to the hydrodynamics of dyonic cold plasma, respectively. Further, the unified structure of quaternionic hydrodynamics field components can be expressed asWe may consider the generalized dual hydrodynamics fields, namely, the hydroelectric and hydromagnetic fields of dyonic fluid associated with the dynamics of electrons and magnetic monopoles in dyonic cold plasma. Thus, the unified fields can be rewrite asThe hydroelectric field vector () plays as the generalized Lamb vector field and the hydromagnetic field vector () plays as the generalized vorticity field [4547] to the case of dual MHD. The generalized Lamb vector field may be used to accelerate the dyonic fluid flow while the vorticity field is its counterpart. Thus, the generalized dual fields () for dyonic fluid becomeand the dual Lorenz gauge conditions () for the continuous flow of incompressible dyonic fluid plasma areThe unified quaternionic Lamb-vorticity field vector (or generalized hydroelectromagnetic field vector) for dyons can be expressed asNow, applying the quaternionic conjugate of differential operator to (88), we obtainEquation (89) shows the quaternionic space-time evaluation of generalized Lamb-vorticity fields in the incompressible fluid of dyonic cold plasma. The dynamics of dyonic cold plasma fluid can be expressed by following equation:where is the quaternionic source for the dyonic cold plasma. Moreover, the quaternionic vector and scalar components of dyonic sources, i.e., (), can be written aswhere () are the quaternionic electric source current and source density associated with the dynamics of hydroelectric field while () are corresponding magnetic sources associated with the dynamics of hydromagnetic field of dyonic fluid. Therefore, the quaternionic unified hydroelectromagnetic source for dyonic cold plasma can be expressed byHere, are quaternionic two four-fluid sources of dyons and () considering the permittivity and permeability satisfy . Now, equate quaternionic imaginary and real coefficients in (90) and obtainThe above eight equations represent the quaternionic field equations for hydrodynamics of dyonic cold plasma. These obtained equations are primary equations for dual MHD of dyonic cold plasma, which are exactly the same as the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations given by (49)-(52). As such, we also may write the unified dual MHD field equations for dyonic cold plasma asThe present quaternionic formulation describes the macroscopic cold plasma behavior. The solution of differential equations (104)-(105) provides the evolution of generalized lamb vector field and generalized vorticity field to the presence of dyonic cold plasma. Now, we may check the validity of dual MHD field equations for dyonic cold plasma in given subsections.

5.1. Duality Invariant

Let us check the duality invariant symmetry for generalized hydroelectric and hydromagnetic fields of dyonic cold plasma. The duality transformation defines the rotation of hydroelectric and hydromagnetic field components in the quaternionic space such that the physics behind the quantity remains the same after the transformation is performed. Suppose, and are the field and dual field tensor, then the duality transformation becomes [48]Correspondingly, the quaternionic hydroelectric and hydromagnetic fields can also be transformed aswhere is an unitary matrix called the duality transformation matrix (or simply D-matrix). For general case , the generalized dual fields will be transformed asHere, the D-matrix . For quaternionic dual-velocity and dual-enthalpy of dyons fluid, the following duality transformation relations governed the streamline flow, i.e.,Accordingly, the dual-current and dual-density of dyonic plasma will be transformed asInterestingly, from relations (108) to (112), we can conclude that the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations for dyonic fluid of cold plasma are invariant under the duality transformations and showing the highly symmetric nature in presence of dyonic fluid.

5.2. Lorentz Invariant

Let us start with the most usual transformation [49, 50] that preserves the quaternionic intervals ; i.e.,where is any four-vector and the Lorentz transformation matrix element isHere is the boost parameter. Using the above Lorentz transformation matrix, we may obtain the following transformation equations for quaternionic four-velocity () of dyonic cold plasma which are an analogous to quaternionic potentials of dyons; i.e.,whereIf we consider the massive dyonic particles [51], then the transformation relations (115) lead to the energy-momentum transformations for dyonic cold plasma,where the quaternionic four-momentum is defined by . It should be notice that the obtained relations (117) are similar to the usual relativistic Lorentz energy-momentum transformation relations [49, 50], where we assume that the speed of dyons () is comparable to the speed of light (). As such, we also may establish the following transformation relations for quaternionic source current and source density, i.e.,Correspondingly, we obtain the Lorentz transformation relations for unified hydroelectromagnetic field of dyonic cold plasma, so thatalong withThe beauty of the transformation relations (118)-(120) is that the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations for dyonic fluid of cold plasma are well invariant under these Lorentz transformation.

5.3. CPT Invariant

In order to check the CPT invariance [52] for the dual MHD field equations of dyonic cold plasma, we may write the charge conjugation matrix () to the case of quaternionic dual-current sources and hydroelectromagnetic fields of dyonic fluid as , where the charge conjugation transformation plays asCorrespondingly, the parity matrix can govern the following transformations for the dyonic fluid:As such, we can write the time reversal matrix, i.e., , and the transformation performs asThe forth component of quaternionic sources can also be transformed for charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal as the following ways:We can summarize the quaternionic physical quantities of dual MHD fields and their changes under charge conjugation, parity inversion, and time reversal given by Table 2 [53, 54].

Table 2: Quaternionic physical quantities and their CPT transformations.

Now, we may apply the CPT transformation relations on generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations for dyonic fluid of cold plasma as [54]Therefore, it may conclude that the generalized Dirac-Maxwell equations for dyonic cold plasma are invariant under CPT transformations.

6. Quaternionic Hydroelectromagnetic Wave Propagation

To establish the dual hydrodynamics wave equations for dyonic cold plasma, we can start with the following quaternionic relation:where the left hand part of (131) can be written asAccordingly, the right hand part of (131) can be expressed asNow, equate the real and imaginary parts of quaternionic basis vectors in (131) and obtain the following relations:Equations (134) and (135) defined the well-known dual continuity equations while (136) and (137) represented the generalized hydromagnetic and hydroelectric wave equations for dyonic cold plasma in presence of electrons and magnetic monopoles. The beauty of (136) is that it is an analogous to Alfven wave propagation [55, 56] associated with magnetic monopoles, and the same way (137) describes the counterpart of Alfven wave propagation associated with the electrons. Thus, the unified hydroelectromagnetic wave equations for dyonic fluid of cold plasma can also be expressed asInterestingly, the generalized wave equation (138) is invariant under the duality, Lorentz, and CPT transformations.

7. Conclusion

The dyons are high energetic soliton particles existing in the cold plasma. The cold plasma model is the simplest model where we assume negligible plasma temperature, and the corresponding distribution function shows the Dirac delta function centered at the macroscopic flow of linearised velocity. Dyonic cold plasma model can be used in the study of small amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in the conducting plasma. In this study, we have applied the four-dimensional space-time algebra (quaternionic algebra) to elaborate the dynamics of dyonic fluid in cold plasma field. In Section 2, we have explained in detail the properties of quaternionic algebra. However, the quaternion is an important and appropriate fundamental mathematical tool to understand the four-dimension space-time world. In Sections 3 and 4, the fundamental equations for MHD field and their cold plasma approximation have been defined. The interesting part we have mentioned here that the dual MHD equations for massive dyons consisted of electrons and magnetic monopoles. The generalized equations involving the mass and charge densities are expressed in terms of one-fluid theory of dyonic cold plasma. Accordingly, we have discussed the dual-current densities given by (56). The mass conservation law, dual-charge conservation law, Lorentz force equation, and Ohm’s law for dyonic cold plasma have been defined. In Section 5, we have described the quaternionic formulation for moving massive dyonic fluid of incompressible cold plasma. The advantage of the quaternionic formulation is that, it is better to explain two four-velocities, hydroelectric (Lamb vector), and hydromagnetic (vorticity) fields and the dual Lorenz gauge conditions for dyonic cold plasma. It has been emphasized that the dual hydrodynamics field of dyons (i.e., hydroelectric and hydromagnetic fields) deal with both electrohydrodynamic and magnetic-hydrodynamics. In present study, the existence of magnetic monopoles has been visualized to MHD field. It has been shown that the two current sources are also associated with the quaternionic hydroelectric and hydromagnetic fields of dyonic plasma fluid. We have established the eight primary equations of dual MHD field in presence of dyonic fluid. Interestingly, the unified macroscopic Dirac-Maxwell equations (104) and (105) have been obtained in the case of dyonic dual MHD. It has been noticed that like electrodynamics, the Dirac-Maxwell fluid equations are mandatory to describe the dynamics of MHD plasma. The beauty of cold plasma field equations is that these equations are well invariant under the duality, Lorentz, and CPT transformations. In Section 6, we have obtained the quaternionic dual continuity equations for incompressible dyonic fluid. The generalized hydroelectric and hydromagnetic wave equations have been established for dyonic cold plasma in presence of electrons and magnetic monopoles. It has been emphasized that the obtained Alfven wave like equation is associated with magnetic monopoles, while the counterpart of Alfven wave equation plays as electric-plasma waves in presence of electrons.

Data Availability

No data were used to support this study.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. M. P. Bachynski, “Plasma Physics—An Elementary Review,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1751–1766, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, “A general theory of the plasma of an arc,” Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 876–922, 1929. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Alfvén, “Existence of electromagnetic-hydrodynamic waves,” Nature, vol. 150, no. 3805, pp. 405-406, 1942. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1998. View at MathSciNet
  5. J. M. Dawson, “Nonlinear electron oscillations in a cold plasma,” Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 383–387, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Meyer-Vernet, “Electromagnetic waves in a plasma containing both electric charges and magnetic monopoles,” American Journal of Physics, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 846–848, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. A. M. Dirac, “Quantized singularities in the electromagnetic field,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, vol. 133, p. 60, 1931. View at Google Scholar
  8. P. A. M. Dirac, “The theory of magnetic poles,” Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 817–830, 1948. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Schwinger, “A magnetic model of matter,” Science, vol. 165, no. 3895, pp. 757–761, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Schwinger, “Sources and magnetic charge,” Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 173, no. 5, pp. 1536–1544, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Zwanziger, “Dirac magnetic poles forbidden in s-matrix theory,” Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 137, no. 3B, pp. B647–B648, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Peres, “Rotational invariance of magnetic monopoles,” Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 167, no. 5, p. 1449, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Peres, “Singular string of magnetic monopoles,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 50-51, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. E. Dickson, “On quaternions and their generalization and the history of the eight square theorem,” Annals of Mathematics: Second Series, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 155–171, 1919. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  15. W. R. Hamilton, Elements of Quaternions, vol. I & II, Chelsea Publishing, New York, NY, USA, 1969. View at MathSciNet
  16. A. Cayley, “On certain results relating to quaternions,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 26, p. 210, 1845. View at Google Scholar
  17. H. Flint, “Applications of quaternions to the theory of relativity,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 39, p. 439, 1920. View at Google Scholar
  18. B. S. Rajput, “Unification of generalized electromagnetic and gravitational fields,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 351–353, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. O. P. S. Negi and B. S. Rajput, “Quaternionic formulation for electromagnetic-field equations,” Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 325–329, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Imaeda, “Quaternionic formulation of tachyons, superluminal transformations and a complex space-time,” Il Nuovo Cimento. B. Serie 11, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 271–293, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  21. S. L. Adler, Quaternionic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995. View at MathSciNet
  22. A. I. Arbab, “A Quaternionic Quantum Mechanics,” Applied Physics Research, vol. 3, p. 160, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Demir and M. Tanisli, “A compact biquaternionic formulation of massive field equations in gravi-electromagnetism,” The European Physical Journal Plus, vol. 126, no. 11, article 115, pp. 1–12, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Demir, M. Tanisli, and M. E. Kansu, “Octonic massless field equations,” International Journal of Modern Physics A, vol. 30, no. 15, Article ID 1550084, 17 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  25. B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, and O. P. Negi, “Generalized octonion electrodynamics,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1333–1343, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  26. B. C. Chanyal, P. S. Bisht, and O. P. Negi, “Octonion and conservation laws for dyons,” International Journal of Modern Physics A, vol. 28, no. 26, 1350125, 17 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  27. B. C. Chanyal, “Split octonion reformulation of generalized linear gravitational field equations,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol. 56, no. 5, 051702, 18 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  28. S. V. Mironov and V. L. Mironov, “Sedeonic equations of massive fields,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 153–168, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  29. Z.-H. Weng, “Some properties of dark matter field in the complex octonion space,” International Journal of Modern Physics A, vol. 30, no. 35, Article ID 1550212, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  30. B. C. Chanyal, “A relativistic quantum theory of dyons wave propagation,” Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1200–1207, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. C. Chanyal, “A new development in quantum field equations of dyons,” Canadian Journal of Physics, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. R. J. Thompson and T. M. Moeller, “A Maxwell s formulation for the equations of a Plasma,” Physics of Plasmas, vol. 19, Article ID 010702, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. Demir, M. Tanışlı, N. Şahin, and M. E. Kansu, “Biquaternionic reformulation of multifluid plasma equations,” Chinese Journal of Physics, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1329–1339, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Demir and E. Zeren, “Multifluid plasma equations in terms of hyperbolic octonions,” International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics, vol. 15, no. 4, 1850053, 16 pages, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  35. D. R. Nickolson, An Introduction to Plasma Theory, vol. 171, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
  36. Y. L. Klimontovich, The Statistical Theory of Non-Equilibrium Processes in a Plasma, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1967.
  37. A. Vlasov, “On the kinetic theory of an assembly of particles with collective interaction,” The Journal of Physics (U.S.S.R.), vol. 9, pp. 25–40, 1945. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  38. P. A. Davidson, An Introduction to Magneto-hydrodynamics, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  39. P. M. Bellen, Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  40. R. Fitzpatrick, Plasma Physics: An Introduction, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York, NY, USA, 2015.
  41. M. Goossens, An Introduction to Plasma Astrophysics and Magneto-hydrodynamics, Spring. Sci. & Business Media, 2012.
  42. O. Coceal, W. A. Sabra, and S. Thomas, “Duality-invariant magnetohydrodynamics and dyons,” EPL (Europhysics Letters), vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 277–282, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. J. Thompson and T. M. Moeller, “Classical field isomorphisms in two-fluid plasmas,” Physics of Plasmas, vol. 19, no. 8, p. 082116, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. A. I. Arbab, “The analogy between electromagnetism and hydrodynamics,” Physics Essays, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 254–259, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1932.
  46. C. W. Hamman, J. C. Klewicki, and R. . Kirby, “On the Lamb vector divergence in Navier-Stokes flows,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 610, pp. 261–284, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  47. C. Truesdell, The Kinematics of Vorticity, vol. 954, Indiana University Press, 1954.
  48. N. Anderson and A. M. Arthurs, “Duality transformation and invariants of the electromagnetic field,” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 575–578, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  49. R. D. Sard, Relativistic Mechanics: Special Relativity and Classical Particle Dynamics, W. A. Benjamin, New York, NY, USA, 1970.
  50. C. A. Brau, Modern Problems to Classical Electrodynamics, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2003.
  51. B. C. Chanyal, “Octonion massive electrodynamics,” General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 46, no. 1, Article ID 1646, 15 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  52. J. W. Norbury, “The invariance of classical electromagnetism under charge conjugation, parity and time reversal (CPT) transformations,” European Journal of Physics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 99–102, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. B. Malament, “On the time reversal invariance of classical electromagnetic theory,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part B. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 295–315, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  54. P. S. Bisht, T. Li, Pushpa, and O. P. S. Negi, “Discrete symmetries and generalized fields of dyons,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1370–1383, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  55. A. Hasegawa and C. Uberoi, The Alfven Waves, DOE Critical Rev. Series, Tech. Information center, USA, 1982.
  56. H. C. Spruit, “Essential magnetohydrodynamics for astrophysics,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1301.5572.