Advances in High Energy Physics

Volume 2019, Article ID 5367349, 6 pages

https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5367349

## Thermodynamic Limit in High-Multiplicity Proton-Proton Collisions at TeV

^{1}Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India^{2}UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa^{3}Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien and Université de Strasbourg Institute for Advanced Study, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Natasha Sharma; hc.nrec@amrahS.ahsataN

Received 28 March 2019; Accepted 26 May 2019; Published 20 June 2019

Academic Editor: Mariana Frank

Copyright © 2019 Natasha Sharma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The publication of this article was funded by SCOAP^{3}.

#### Abstract

An analysis is made of the particle composition in the final state of proton-proton (pp) collisions at 7 TeV as a function of the charged particle multiplicity (). The thermal model is used to determine the chemical freeze-out temperature as well as the radius and strangeness suppression factor . Three different ensembles are used in the analysis: the grand canonical ensemble, the canonical ensemble with exact strangeness conservation, and the canonical ensemble with exact baryon number, strangeness, and electric charge conservation. It is shown that for the highest multiplicity class the three ensembles lead to the same result. This allows us to conclude that this multiplicity class is close to the thermodynamic limit. It is estimated that the final state in pp collisions could reach the thermodynamic limit when is larger than twenty per unit of rapidity, corresponding to about 300 particles in the final state when integrated over the full rapidity interval.

#### 1. Introduction

In statistical mechanics the thermodynamic limit is the limit in which the total number of particles and the volume become large but the ratio remains finite and results obtained in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles become equivalent. In this paper we argue that this limit might be reached in high energy pp collisions if the total number of charged hadrons becomes larger than 20 per unit of rapidity in the mid-rapidity region, corresponding to roughly 300 particles in the final state when integrated over the full rapidity interval. For this purpose use is made of the data published by the ALICE Collaboration [1] on the production of multi-strange hadrons in pp collisions as a function of charged particle multiplicity in a one-unit pseudorapidity interval . These data have attracted significant attention because they cannot be reproduced by standard Monte Carlo models [2–4].

In high energy collisions applications of the statistical model in the form of the hadron resonance gas model have been successful [5, 6] in describing the composition of the final state, e.g., the yields of pions, kaons, protons, and other hadrons. In these descriptions use is made of the grand canonical ensemble and the canonical ensemble with exact strangeness conservation. In this paper we consider in addition the use of the canonical ensemble with exact baryon, strangeness, and charge conservation.

The identifying feature of the thermal model is that all the resonances listed in [7] are assumed to be in thermal and chemical equilibrium. This assumption drastically reduces the number of free parameters as this stage is determined by just a few thermodynamic variables, namely, the chemical freeze-out temperature , the various chemical potentials determined by the conserved quantum numbers and by the volume of the system. It has been shown that this description is also the correct one [8–10] for a scaling expansion as first discussed by Bjorken [11]. After integration over these authors have shown thatwhere is the particle yield as calculated in a fireball at rest. Hence, in the Bjorken model with longitudinal scaling and radial expansion the effects of hydrodynamic flow cancel out in ratios.

We will show in this paper that the difference between the ensembles used disappears if the final state multiplicity is large. All calculations were done using THERMUS [12].

We compare three different ensembles based on the thermal model.(i)Grand canonical ensemble (GCE), the conservation of quantum numbers is implemented using chemical potentials. The quantum numbers are conserved on the average. The partition function depends on thermodynamic quantities and the Hamiltonian describing the system of hadrons: which, in the framework of the thermal model considered here, leads to in the Boltzmann approximation. The yield is given by We have put the chemical potentials equal to zero, as relevant for the beam energies considered here. The decays of resonances have to be added to the final yield(ii)Canonical ensemble with exact implementation of strangeness conservation, we will refer to this as the strangeness canonical ensemble (SCE). There are chemical potentials for baryon number and charge but not for strangeness: The delta function imposes exact strangeness conservation, requiring overall strangeness to be fixed to the value , and in this paper we will only consider the case where overall strangeness is zero, . This change leads to [13] where the fugacity factor is replaced by where is the canonical partition function where is the one-particle partition function calculated for in the Boltzmann approximation. The arguments of the Bessel functions and the parameters are introduced as where is the sum of all for particle species carrying strangeness . As previously, the decays of resonances have to be added to the final yield(iii)Canonical ensemble with exact implementation of , , and conservation, we will refer to this as the full canonical ensemble (FCE). In this ensemble there are no chemical potentials. The partition function is given by where the fugacity factors have been replaced by As before, the decays of resonances have to be added to the final yield A similar analysis was done in [14] for pp collisions at 200 GeV but without the dependence on charged multiplicity.

In this case the analytic expression becomes very lengthy and we refrain from writing it down here; it is implemented in the THERMUS program [12].

These three ensembles are applied to pp collisions in the central region of rapidity. It is well known that, in this kinematic region, one has particle antiparticle symmetry and therefore there is no net baryon density and also no net strangeness. The GCE implements the conservation of quantum numbers on average; this means that they are not conserved exactly but fluctuations around the average exist. The SCE implements the conservation of the strangeness quantum number exactly. The FCE implements the conservation of the baryon, strangeness, and charge qiuantum numbers exactly; all three of them are being forced to be zero. Hence the three different ensembles can give different results because of the way they are implemented. Since the yields are measured in a small rapidity window it can be argued that the exact conservation of quantum numbers is never warranted because the full phase space is not covered.

A clear size dependence is present in the results of the ensembles. In the thermodynamic limit they should become equivalent. Clearly there are other ensembles that could be investigated and also other sources of finite volume corrections. We hope to address these in a longer publication in the near future.

A similar analysis was done in [14–16] for pp collisions at 200 GeV but without the dependence on charged multiplicity.

#### 2. Comparison of Different Statistical Ensembles

In Figure 1(a) we show the chemical freeze-out temperature as a function of the multiplicity of hadrons in the final state [1]. The freeze-out temperature has been calculated using three different ensembles. The highest values are obtained using the canonical ensemble with exact conservation of three quantum numbers, baryon number , strangeness , and charge , all of them being set to zero as is appropriate for the central rapidity region in pp collisions at 7 TeV. In this ensemble the temperature drops very clearly from the lowest to the highest multiplicity intervals. The open symbols in Figure 1 were calculated using as input the yields for , , , , and while the full symbols also include the yields for as given in [1] (The values used in this study were obtained by the ALICE Collaboration and can be found at the url: https://www.hepdata.net/record/77284.). As an example we show a comparison between measured and fitted values for the multiplicity class II in Table 1.