Table of Contents
Volume 2016, Article ID 2752681, 7 pages
Research Article

Characterizations of Algebras

School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001, China

Received 11 July 2015; Revised 20 November 2015; Accepted 8 December 2015

Academic Editor: Antonio M. Cegarra

Copyright © 2016 Fang-an Deng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The so-called ideal and subalgebra and some additional concepts of algebras are discussed. A partial order and congruence relations on algebras are also proposed, and some properties are investigated.