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Advances in Multimedia
Volume 2017, Article ID 6359248, 9 pages
Research Article

General Framework of Reversible Watermarking Based on Asymmetric Histogram Shifting of Prediction Error

Sheng Chen,1,2,3 Xianyi Chen,1,2,3 and Huijuan Fu4,5

1Jiangsu Engineering Center of Network Monitoring, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210044, China
2Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3School of Computer and Software, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
4School of Information Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
5School of Information Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Jiangxi, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Xianyi Chen; moc.361@2264020

Received 28 July 2017; Accepted 9 October 2017; Published 23 November 2017

Academic Editor: Fu Lee Wang

Copyright © 2017 Sheng Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents a general framework for the reversible watermarking based on asymmetric histogram shifting of prediction error, which is inspired by reversible watermarking of prediction error. Different from the conventional algorithms using single-prediction scheme to create symmetric histogram, the proposed method employs a multi-prediction scheme, which calculates multiple prediction values for the pixels. Then, the suitable value would be selected by two dual asymmetric selection functions to construct two asymmetric error histograms. Finally, the watermark is embedded in the two error histograms separately utilizing a complementary embedding strategy. The proposed framework provides a new perspective for the research of reversible watermarking, which brings about many benefits for the information security.