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Deeper Sections: Its Frequency and Diagnostic Utility in Histopathology of Noncutaneous Small Biopsy Specimen in a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal
Background. Biopsy is an important tool for accurate diagnosis of disease in histopathology which can be examined at multiple levels during microscopic examination. The initial sections may not be representative of the entire biopsy, which leads to frequent request for deeper sections. This study assessed the frequency and diagnostic utility of deeper sections in noncutaneous small biopsy specimens at a tertiary hospital. Material and Methods. All the formalin fixed noncutaneous small biopsy specimens received were processed for grossing followed by tissue processing and embedding. The paraffin-embedded blocks were cut into 3–5 µm sections, fixed in a glass slide, deparaffinised, and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain as per the standard protocol. Deeper sections were instructed based on microscopic findings of initial slides. The overall frequency of deeper section, its levels of cutting, tissue survival, and outcome were assessed and interpreted for the final diagnosis. Results. A total of 125 cases (26.9%) from 464 samples received were requested for deeper sections. The most frequent deeper sections were from cervix (72 cases) followed by stomach (18 cases) and endometrium (17 cases). The deeper sections were performed most frequently at 4 levels (17.8%) followed by 5 levels (14.8%) and 6 levels (13.3%). Deeper sections revealed nondiagnostic additional features in 28.2%, while 2.2% showed additional diagnostic features. Likewise, 2.2% had tissue segment loss. The overall mean level showing additional features was 6 levels. Tissue survival increased in 13% cases and 1.5% had decreased survival. The most common reason for requesting deeper section was to enhance sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of disease. Conclusions. Deeper sections often contribute to final diagnosis. Therefore, deeper sections on biopsies that cannot readily be diagnosed on routine levels are recommended regardless of size of the lesion and there should be uniformity in the practice of deeper sections across the globe.
Types and Presentation of Refractive Error among Individuals Aged 0–30 Years: Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study, Yemen
Background. Refractive errors are the most common cause of visual impairment worldwide. Its proportion varied among societies and is considered as a public health challenge. Symptoms and signs associated with refractive errors are the most worrisome and common presentations in the general practice in eye clinics. Aim. The goal of this study was to determine the types and presentations of refractive error among the 0–30-year-old Yemeni population to aid early identification, diagnosis, referral, and treatment. Methodology. A cross-sectional study including 1,500 out-patients aged from 0 to 30 years attending the ophthalmology clinic in Sanaa, Yemen (between 2012 and 2015). All patients underwent visual acuity examination, autorefractometer, and anterior and posterior segment examination and were grouped according to type, that is, myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Results. Hyperopia was the most common single diagnosis (53.3%) followed by myopia (33.3%). Astigmatism was uncommon as a single diagnosis (13.4%) but commonly associated with hyperopia or myopia. Myopia was more common in males (42.9%) than in females (25%). Hyperopia was more in females (62.5%) than in males (42.9%). Age groups most affected by refractive errors were 13–18 years (27.7%), 19–24 years (24.8%), and 25–30 years (24.6%), respectively. Decreased vision (53%) was a common presentation in myopia and astigmatism (41.5%) and less in hyperopia (39.6%). Headache was common in astigmatism (56%), hyperopia (28.8%), and myopia (17.8%). Muscle imbalance, namely, exotropia (27.2%), is mainly found in myopia and esotropia (24.3%) in hyperopia. Conclusions. In addition to decreased vision, our patients with refractive errors mostly complain of headaches with clear variations with age and type of refractive error. Early identification and proper categorization of refractive errors by age, gender, and other demographics by general physicians in primary care can better deduce and make useful referrals to eye specialists.
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Back Pain among Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital, North West Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Back pain is often reported as a common complaint after surgery. Many studies showed that the prevalence of back pain after spinal anesthesia is high and its magnitude is considerable in developing countries. It is highly related to reduced quality of life, loss of work productivity, burden of health care costs, and satisfaction regarding health care service; therefore, measures should be taken to reduce or prevented postspinal back. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with back pain among patients undergoing spinal anesthesia at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methodology. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2020. A total of 215 participants were enrolled in this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to get the study participants. Both univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with postspinal back pain. Variables with a value less than <0.2 in the bivariable analysis were fitted into the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis, a variable with a value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of postspinal back pain was 40.5% (95% CI: 34.0, 47.4). Being overweight (AOR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.47, 9.96) and obese (AOR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.19, 20.4), using big spinal needles (AOR = 5.9; 95% CI: 1.04, 33.4), two attempts of lumbar puncture (AOR = 5.5; 95% CI: 1.74, 17.59), more than three attempts of lumbar puncture (AOR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.63, 15.2), and the number of bone contacts during spinal anesthesia procedure (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.14, 8.45) were positively associated with postspinal back pain. Conclusion and Recommendation. The overall incidence of back pain is high. Body mass index, size of spinal needle, number of attempts, and number of bone contacts are significantly associated with the incidence of back pain following spinal anesthesia. Thus, it is better to minimize the number of lumbar puncture attempts and bone contacts during spinal anesthesia to reduce postspinal back pain. In addition, using smaller size spinal needle is a good choice.
Trajectory Analysis of Glycemic Control in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus at Dammam Medical Complex, Saudi Arabia
Background. Saudi Arabia is reported to have the highest number of children and adolescents with T1DM. However, data concerning glycemic control during adolescence are lacking. Objectives. To determine glycemic control at transition stage from pediatric to adult clinics, determine HBA1c patterns during follow-up, and identify any clinical or demographic variables that may predict a distinctive glycemic pattern. Design. Observational retrospective study. Setting. Dammam Medical Complex, secondary care hospital. Patients and Method. Adolescents aged ≥12 years, with HbA1c recorded at least once a year over 4 years of follow-up, were eligible for inclusion. A trajectory analysis from 2008 to 2019 was conducted, using latent class growth modelling (LCGM), and two-sample t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests were conducted to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in demographic and clinical variables. Sample Size. 44 patients. Results. 61.36% were referred from pediatric clinics, and 84% were on multiple insulin daily injections. For the trajectory prediction, two groups were identified. Group 1 comprised 71.7%, had high HbA1c values at age 13 (HbA1c, 11.28%), and had a significant and stable decrease in HbA1c values with age (−0.32, ). Group 2 comprised 28.2%, showed poor HbA1c values at age 13 (HbA1c, 13.28%), and showed increase in HbA1c values slightly by age 15, which then steadily decreased with age (−0.27). Results indicated that the initial HBA1c value was a significant predictor for group trajectory , while the remaining variables did not have any significance. Conclusion. Our study identified two groups with poorly controlled diabetes; however, the first group performed relatively better than the second group. Both groups almost doubled their targets, with a trend towards HbA1c reduction by the age of 19 in both groups. Limitations. Retrospective study with convenient, small sample size.
How Do COVID-19 Inpatients in the Denver Metropolitan Area Measure Up?
Background. Inpatient data for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) afflicted inpatients remain sparse. Data are needed to create accurate projections for resource consumption as the pandemic continues. Published reports of inpatient data have come from China, Italy, Singapore, and both the East and West coasts of the United States. Objective. The objective is to present our inpatient experience with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants. This is a retrospective study of 681 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from six hospitals in the Denver metropolitan area admitted between February 18 and April 30, 2020. Clinical outcomes of patients discharged or expired by April 30, 2020, were analyzed. Main Outcomes. We compiled patient demographics, length of stay, number of patients transferred to or admitted to the ICU, ICU length of stay, mechanical ventilation requirements, and mortality rates. Results. Of the 890 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, 681 had discharged and were included in this analysis. We observed 100% survival of the 0–18 age group (n = 2), 97% survival of the 19–30 age group, 95% survival of the 31–64 age group, 79% survival of the 65–84 age group, and 75% survival of the 85 and older age group. Our total inpatient mortality was 13% (91 patients), rising to 29% (59 patients) for those requiring ICU care. Conclusions. Compared to similar reports from other metropolitan areas, our analysis of discharged or expired COVID-19 patients from six major hospitals in the Denver metropolitan area revealed a lower mortality. This includes the subset of patients admitted to the ICU regardless of the need for intubation. A lower ICU length of stay was also observed.
Gnathic Bones and Hyperparathyroidism: A Review on the Metabolic Bony Changes Affecting the Mandible and Maxilla in case of Hyperparathyroidism
Parathyroid glands secrete the parathyroid hormone that plays an essential role in bone remodeling. Excessive production of parathyroid hormone causes a common metabolic bone disorder known as hyperparathyroidism that is classified into primary, secondary, or tertiary. In hyperparathyroidism, the late bony complication is manifested as a giant cell osteolytic lesion called “brown tumor.” Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually a sporadic disorder, but in minority of cases it occurs in inherited forms, and one of these forms is the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, which is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism and ossifying fibroma in the mandible and/or maxilla.