Advances in Medicine
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Pain Management and Its Possible Implementation Research in North Ethiopia: A before and after Study

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Advances in Medicine publishes original research articles, review articles and clinical studies on recent advances in medicine and related disciplines. The journal focuses on diagnostic and imaging techniques, as well as drug design and development.

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Research Article

Effectiveness in Bowel Cleansing and Patient Tolerability of Polyethylene Glycol versus Sodium Picosulphate in Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy

Introduction. Colonoscopy is considered as a gold standard investigation for screening of colorectal cancer and other lower gastrointestinal pathologies. Adequate bowel preparation is absolutely necessary for a fruitful colonoscopy. Various bowel cleansing agents are being used for his purpose. The aim of the present study was to compare the two bowel cleansing agents: a single dose of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) solution and a split dose of Sodium Picosulfate (Na PICOSUL) tablet with regards to cleansing efficacy and tolerability among the patients scheduled for colonoscopy. Methods. It is an open-label hospital-based observational study. A total of sixty-four patients were grouped randomly into two groups of bowel cleansing agents that are PEG and Na PICOSUL during the study period between 1st December 2015 and 30th November 2016. Patients’ tolerability was evaluated using a structured questionnaire, and the bowel cleansing efficacy was evaluated using the Aronchick Bowel Preparation Scale (ABPS). Results. The group that received PEG solution was found to have better efficacy than that which received Na PICOSUL tablet (63.3% versus 29.4%, respectively, with a value < 0.028) with excellent grade as per ABPS. The Na PICOSUL group was found better in terms of tolerability than the PEG group as nausea/vomiting was encountered significantly higher in the PEG group than in the Na PICOSUL group (43.3% versus 11.8%, respectively, with a value < 0.01). Conclusions. Colonic preparation with a split dose of Na PICOSUL tablet was better tolerated than the evening before regimen of PEG solution. However, PEG solution was found to be more efficacious in bowel cleansing, but procedural performance and lesion detection were similar for both agents.

Research Article

The Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Tanshinone IIA Plus Adriamycin on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenograft in BALB/C Nude Mice and Their Influences on Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 In Vivo

Objective. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common diseases that seriously threaten human life and health. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) combined with adriamycin (ADM) on human hepatocellular carcinoma and developed a platform to assess the function if Chinese herbal ingredients combined with chemotherapy drugs have synergistic antitumor effects in vivo. Methods. Established animal model of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cell in nude mice. Mice were divided into model control group, Tan IIA group, ADM group, and Tan IIA + ADM group. The changes from general condition, weight, tumor volume, and inhibition rate were observed. The data were gathered from serum AST level and histopathological changes. The content and activity of cytochrome P450 were determined by spectrophotometric analysis. CYP3A4 protein expression was analyzed by western blotting. The binding model crystal structure of Tan IIA and ADM with pregnane X receptor (PXR) was evaluated by Discovery Studio 2.1. Results. A combination of Tan IIA with ADM could improve life quality by relieving ADM toxicity, decreasing tumor volume, declining serum AST level, and improving liner pathological section in tumor-bearing mice. The inhibitory rates of Tan IIA, ADM, and cotreatment were 32.77%, 60.96%, and 73.18%, respectively. The Tan IIA group significantly enhanced the content of cytochrome b5, P450, and erythromycin-N-demethylase activity. CYP3A4 protein expression was enhanced obviously by the Tan IIA + ADM group. Virtual molecular docking showed that both Tan IIA and ADM could be stably docked with the same binding site of PXR but different interactions. Conclusions. Tan IIA in combination with ADM could improve the life quality in tumor-bearing mice and enhance the antitumor effect. The Tan IIA group increased the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes and activity. Combined Tan IIA with ADM could upregulate the CYP3A4 protein expression and make relevant interaction with protein PXR by virtual docking.

Research Article

Association between Hypertension, Antihypertensive Drugs, and Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Syrian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background. Osteoporosis and hypertension are frequent and often coexisting diseases among the elderly. Recent studies suggested that both diseases may share the same etiopathology. Moreover, the treatment of hypertension can affect the bone mineral density and worsen osteoporosis. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of low bone mass and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Syrian women and investigate their relationship with hypertension and antihypertensive drugs. Methods. 813 postmenopausal women were involved in this cross-sectional study, aged between 40 and 96 yrs. Their menopause duration ranged between 1 and 43 yrs. Bone mineral density was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the total lumbar spine (L1-L4) and left hip. T-score values were used to determine the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The existence of HTN was defined as blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg or a history of hypertension medication. Results. Using the world health organization criteria, 24% had osteoporosis and 45.2% had low bone mass. The incidence of osteoporosis and low bone mass significantly increased with age and menopause duration and decreased with BMI. Prevalence of hypertension was almost equal among the women who had or did not have osteoporosis. However, hypertensive women who used thiazides or beta blockers had higher values of total lumbar BMD compared with the women who did not. Conclusion. Hypertension in postmenopausal Syrian women aged over 40 was not found to be associated with osteoporosis. However, the mean total lumbar BMD of the hypertensive women who took thiazide diuretics or beta blocker was found to be increased significantly comparing to the women who did not take either.

Research Article

The Role of Gut Microbiome Perturbation in Fatigue Induced by Repeated Stress from Chemoradiotherapy: A Proof of Concept Study

Objectives. The objectives of this proof of concept study were to (a) examine the temporal changes in fatigue and diversity of the gut microbiome over the course of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in adults with rectal cancers; (b) investigate whether there are differences in diversity of the gut microbiome between fatigued and nonfatigued participants at the middle and at the end of CRT; and (c) investigate whether there are differences in the relative abundance of fecal microbiota at the phylum and genus levels between fatigued and nonfatigued participants at the middle and at the end of CRT. Methods. Stool samples and symptom ratings were collected prior to the inception of CRT, at the middle (after 12–16 treatments) and at the end (after 24–28 treatments) of the CRT. Descriptive statistics and Mann–Whitney U test were computed for fatigue. Gut microbiome data were analyzed using the QIIME2 software. Results. Participants (N = 29) ranged in age from 37 to 80 years. The median fatigue score significantly changed at the end of CRT (median = 23.0) compared with the median score before the initiation of CRT for the total sample (median = 17.0; ). At the middle of CRT, the alpha diversity (abundance of Operational Taxonomic Units) was lower for fatigued participants (149.30 ± 53.1) than for nonfatigued participants (189.15 ± 44.18, t(23) = 2.08, ). A similar trend was observed for the Shannon and Faith diversity indexes at the middle of CRT. However, at the end of CRT, there were no significant differences for any alpha diversity indexes between fatigued and nonfatigued participants. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla for fatigued participants, and Escherichia, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, and Oscillospira were the most abundant genera for fatigued participants. Conclusion. CRT-associated perturbation of the gut microbiome composition may contribute to fatigue.

Research Article

Hospital Spiritual Care Can Complement Graduate Medical Trainee Well-Being

Background. Burnout and depression among physician trainees is increasing at an alarming rate. Promoting well-being is of utmost importance for graduate medical education. The primary objective was to determine if spiritual care staff/chaplaincy can assist in building emotional well-being and resiliency within medical residency education. Methods. For the academic year of July 2017 through June 2018, all graduate medical trainees in our institution were given the option of attending either an individual or group spiritual care session as part of a universal “Call to Wellness” curriculum. A Post-Wellness Survey was administered to measure perceptions about the program. Results. 49% (N = 258) of residents chose to participate in a spiritual care session. Prior to the session, 51% (N = 132) rated their overall well-being as neutral and 25% (N = 64) rated their overall well-being as slightly positive, positive, or very positive. After their spiritual care session, significant improvement was seen. 25% (N = 64) rated their overall well-being as neutral, and 51% (N = 132) rated their overall well-being as slightly positive, positive, or very positive (). Conclusion. Spiritual care staff/chaplaincy can have a positive influence on emotional well-being for physicians during residency training.

Research Article

A Monocentric Retrospective Study about the Correlation between Histology and Cytology of Thyroid Indeterminate Nodules Classified as TIR 3A and TIR 3B, according to 2014 Italian Consensus for Classification and Reporting of Thyroid Cytology

Background. In 2014, the Italian Consensus for Classification and Reporting of Thyroid Cytology (ICCRTC) reviewed the previous cytological classification proposed in 2007 including the subdivision of TIR 3 category into low risk (TIR 3A) and high risk (TIR 3B). In Italian literature, different rates of malignancy have been correlated to these subcategories. Objectives. The aim of the study is to present our experience on this subclassification for the assessment of the malignancy risk of indeterminate thyroid nodules. We correlated the subdivision into TIR 3A and TIR 3B with the histological report by highlighting the rates of malignancy detected in the two subcategories. On the one hand, we aimed to check if the groups are associated with a real and significant difference risk of malignancy. On the other hand, we evaluated the use of this subdivision in the choice of the appropriate treatment. Study Design. This is a retrospective review of all the patients with an indeterminate nodule who underwent US-FNA and had surgery at ASL Città di Torino between January 2005 and May 2018. Results. 150 patients have been analyzed for the research; 62 (41.3%) had a malignant histological report. Rates of malignancy between TIR 3A (20.8%) and TIR 3B (60.3%) were significantly different (). The subclassification had high sensitivity (75.8%; CI 63.3–85.8%) and NPV (79.3%; CI 68–87.8%) and low specificity (64.8%; CI 53.9–74.7%) and PPV (60.3; CI 48.5–71.2%). The measurement of the accuracy (AUC = 0.7) classified the test as “moderately accurate.” Conclusions. Obtained data show a great rate of false negative (20.8%) and limited AUC (0.7). According to our logistic regression, we argue that the 2014 subclassification into TIR 3A and TIR 3B should be considered for the choice of patient treatment, but at the same time, we believe that the association with other screening tests is necessary to increase the accuracy in the future.

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