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Drug Development Strategies for Malaria: With the Hope for New Antimalarial Drug Discovery—An UpdateRead the full article
Advances in Medicine publishes original research articles and review articles on recent advances in medicine and related disciplines. The journal focuses on diagnostic and imaging techniques, as well as drug design and development.
Advances in Medicine maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Special Considerations for Management of Diabetes in Adult Patients with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic health condition that is very prevalent worldwide. It has been demonstrated that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at a disproportionately high risk for developing diabetes. Persons with IDDs are estimated to be 2-3 times more likely to develop DM compared to the general population. The elevated risk of developing diabetes within the population of adults with IDDs is multifactorial and includes contributions from genetics, lifestyle, medication use and misuse, boundaries to appropriate medical care, a higher incidence of comorbid mental health disorders, and others. Further, inadequate screening for and management of diabetes for these patients results in heightened risk for adverse cardiovascular events and inferior health care outcomes. To improve patient outcomes for this unique patient population, health care providers need to be well trained in the optimal modalities of screening, diagnosis, and management of diabetes in adults with IDDs. This requires the development of effective diabetes intervention and health promotion programs aimed at patients with IDDs, utilizing a patient-centered approach to screening and management, and conducting further research to assess the impact of these interventions.
Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendance among Mothers Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months in Kembata Tembaro Zone
Background. Skilled delivery is considered the single most important strategy in preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It ensures safe birth, reduces actual and potential complications, and increases the survival of most mothers and newborns. Objective. To identify determinants of the utilization of skilled birth attendance among women who gave birth in the last 12 months in the Kembata Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed from 1 April 2020 to 30 April 2020 among women who gave birth in the last 12 months in the Kembata Tembaro zone. Six hundred twenty-four mothers were recruited for the study as eligible participants. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select three districts and one town administrative unit of the study area. The data were collected and verified for their completeness, followed by editing and coding. Multivariate analysis was performed using the backward LR method to identify factors independently associated with the dependent variable. Statistical significance was declared at a value of less than 0.05, and the strength of statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Result. Of 624 study subjects sampled, 607 provided information with a response rate of 97.3%. In this study, 309 (50.9%) women had their last birth at health facilities attended by skilled birth attendants. Place of residence (AOR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.22,0.58)); age at interview (AOR (95% CI = 3.41 (1.57,5.45)); maternal education (AOR (95% CI) = 1.50 (1.34, 4.19)); history of still birth (AOR (95% CI) = 3.85 (2.14,6.91)); maternal occupation (AOR (95% CI) = 3.35 (1.79,6.27)); husband occupation (AOR (95% CI) = 2.69 (1.70,7.09)); ANC visit (AOR (95% CI) = 4.62 (3.12,7.32)); knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR (95% CI) = 3.10 (1.37,5.21)); and final decision-making about place of delivery (AOR (95% CI) = 3.64 (1.70,7.99)) were significantly associated with the use of skilled birth attendance. Conclusion. In this study, nearly half of the mothers used skilled birth attendance. Place of residence, age at interview, maternal education, history of still birth, maternal occupation, husband occupation, antenatal visit, knowledge about obstetric complications, and final decision-maker about place of delivery were determinants of the use of skilled attendance delivery.
Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern from Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients in National Referral Infectious Disease Hospital in Indonesia
Background. Pneumonia is still a major global problem with high morbidity and mortality. The increasing number of pneumonia cases caused by bacteria, especially multidrug-resistant pathogens, increasing age of the population, patients with chronic disease (comorbid), and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy at initial administration make the treatment become less effective. These issues finally contribute to higher morbidity and mortality in cases of hospitalized pneumonia patients. Therefore, it is crucial to know the microbial pattern and select the therapy according to local antimicrobial sensitivity patterns. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted for hospitalized pneumonia patients between January 2015 and December 2016 in Indonesia National Referral Infectious Disease Hospital. Data were collected from medical records to show patient characteristics, antimicrobial treatment data, culture examination, and bacterial sensitivity. Results. A total of 99 pneumonia patients required hospitalization and underwent sputum culture examination. The patients were mostly above 65 years old (32.3%) and male (57.6%). The most common comorbidities were pulmonary tuberculosis (21%), and the others were heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and HIV/AIDS. Based on the sputum culture, fungi were identified in most specimens (56%), while the bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Acinetobacter sp. (12%), and Pseudomonas sp. (8%). Third-generation cephalosporin, such as ceftriaxone (50%), was commonly used as an antibiotic for pneumonia treatment. Conclusion. Most common bacteria isolated from sputum culture were Klebsiella pneumoniae which were more sensitive to the beta-lactam and aminoglycoside groups. The higher risk factors were age above 65 years old, being male, and having tuberculosis.
The Prevalence of Uncontrolled Hypertension among Patients Taking Antihypertensive Medications and the Associated Risk Factors in North Palestine: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Uncontrolled hypertension (HTN) is a challenge for public health professionals all over the world. It is the leading and most important modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, renal diseases, and retinopathy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of uncontrolled HTN among Palestinian hypertensive patients on treatment. In addition, the study aimed to explore the relationship between socio-demographic and clinical factors with HTN control as well as establish a comprehensive literature review for similar studies. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted. 218 hypertensive patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Results. HTN is not adequately controlled in over 60% of treated patients. Factors that were linked to uncontrolled HTN and were statistically significant as per this study were diabetes (), high BMI (), smoking (), lower educational level (), and monotherapy (). Conclusion. The results suggest that effective efforts on improving HTN control are strongly needed. The efforts need to target hypertensive patients who are also smokers, diabetics, having a low education level, and have a higher-than-normal BMI.
Carpal Dimensions by Plain Wrist Radiography in Patients with Severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of carpal dimensions in wrist plain radiography for the screening of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This is a case-control diagnostic probe in which patients with severe CTS documented by electrodiagnostic study and healthy subjects as controls were enrolled. In the posteroanterior view of the wrist plain radiography in both groups, we defined and measured the carpal ratio, and the results were analyzed deploying statistical software. In this study, 119 participants, including 50 patients and 69 healthy subjects, were recruited. According to the ROC chart, the cutoff points, positive and negative predictive values, and the diagnostic accuracy for the cutoff points were calculated.
SARS-CoV-2 IgG Surveillance in Asymptomatic Blood Donors and Health Workers
Background and Objectives. SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a global pandemic as declared by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in March 2020. In India, the first case was reported in Kerala on the 30th of January, and since then, many states are active but some are showing flattening. Following the seroprevalence testing in healthy blood donors, we can monitor the spread of the virus among healthy people, thus eventually leading to implementing strategies to reduce the spread. Thus, a need was felt to conduct a study to assess the IgG antibody status in healthcare workers differentiating those who were in COVID-19 and others in non-COVID-19 emergency duties during this pandemic. Materials and Methods. 2085 blood donors were allowed to donate blood only after fulfilling all the criteria laid down by the FDA of India with additional history of excluding COVID-19 suspects. IgG antibody testing was performed by chemiluminescence, and results were noted along with their reactive status. Their reactive status was analyzed with donor information to get an idea of the risk parameters for COVID-19. Medical healthcare workers in whom the study was carried out were 560, out of which 114 had worked in COVID-19 duties and 446 had worked in non-COVID-19 emergencies areas. COVID-19 area duties were further subdivided into triage, holding area, isolation, and COVID-19-related duties. The samples were run on architect i2000 and evaluated for their plasma immunoglobulin G. Results. Amongst the asymptomatic blood donors, 1.9% was found to be COVID-19 IgG antibody positive. It was observed that maximum COVID-19 IgG positivity (57.1%) was seen in the age group 18–29 years followed by 26.2% in the age group 30–39 years. Donors in the age group 40–49 years showed antibody positivity of 16.7%, and no antibody-positive donors were found above 50 years of age. COVID-19 IgG positivity was maximum in replacement donors (61.9%) followed by family donors (28.6%) and least involuntary donors (0.6%) Blood donors who showed high IgG positivity were mainly of labor class. Antibody IgG testing on medical healthcare workers showed 2.3% positivity. The healthcare workers who were posted in COVID-19 duties showed 4.8% positivity in the holding area (waiting area with the treatment of patients till their RT PCR report comes) and 5.7% in other COVID-19 areas related to laboratory work. Healthcare workers doing duties in COVID-19 areas showed 2.7% positivity, while those doing duties in non-COVID-19 emergency areas showed a positivity of 2.2%. Conclusion. Our study shows that the prevalence of detectable antibodies was low in the general population in India and many patients were asymptomatic as seen in the blood donors, especially the labor class. Maximum exposure was present in young healthy males of labor class who remained asymptomatic. The healthcare workers were more exposed to COVID-19 as compared to the general population probably due to lack of precaution and awareness. Those doing non-COVID-19 duties were also exposed appreciably and needed to take all the precautions required for COVID-19 duties.
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