Advances in Medicine / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Use of Virtual Reality Tools for Vestibular Disorders Rehabilitation: A Comprehensive Analysis

Table 1

Main characteristics of the studies.

StudyPatients/agesVestibular problemType of virtual reality deviceMeasurements of efficacity

dos Santos et al. (2009)
ACTA ORL [31]
= 8 (18–60 years, mean 41 years)Chronic vestibular dysfunctionBalance Rehabilitation Unit (BRU) with virtual reality glasses projecting visual stimuli(i) Dizziness Handicap Index (DHI)
(ii) Vertigo analogic Scale (VAS)
(iii) Stabilisation limits (LOS)
(iv) Audiometer (tonal, vocal)
(v) Impedance
(vi) Vectonystagmography
(vii) Posturography

Rodrigues et al. (2009)
Rev Equilibro Corporal e Saude [32]
= 10 (24–76 years, mean 51 years)Chronic vestibular disorder secondary to Ménière’s diseaseBalance Rehabilitation Unit (BRU) with visual stimuli (glasses) (i) DHI
(ii) VAS
(iii) LOS
(iv) Computerized Posturography

Viirre and Sitarz (2002) Laryngoscope [33] = 15 (age n/a)
(i) = 9 patients
(ii) = 6 controls
Vertigo symptoms for more than 6 months (with no improvement for at least 6 months)Head-mounted Display (HMD) much like a visor with mounted video screens(i) DHI
(ii) Vestibuloocular reflex (VOR)

Pavlou et al. (2012)
J Vestib Res [34]
= 16 (18–75 years, mean 40 years)
(i) = 11 (Group S = static virtual reality)
(ii) = 5 (Group D = dynamic virtual reality)
(iii) = 5 Group D1 (5 patients from Group S who had also dynamic treatment)
Confirmed peripheral vestibular deficit (caloric test and/or rotational test on ENG)ReaCtoR in the Department of Computer Science: immersive projection theatre (IPT). 3 rear-projected vertical screens (3 m × 2.2 m)(i) Situational Vertigo Questionnaire
(ii) Beck Depression Inventory
(iii) Beck Anxiety Inventory
(iv) Fear Questionnaire
(v) Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)
(vi) Virtual reality exercise symptom scores (VRCESS)

Sparrer et al. (2013)
Acta Otolaryngol [35]
= 71 (28–84 years, mean 43 years)
(i) = 37 patients
(ii) = 34 controls
Acute vestibular neuritis (sudden, spontaneous, and unilateral loss of peripheral vestibular function within 48 h of the onset of vertigo)Wii Fit balance board with image on screen(i) DHI
(ii) Wii Fit age
(iii) Sensory Organization Test (SOT)
(iv) Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS)
(v) Tinetti questionnaire

Whitney et al. (2009)
Physical Therapy Reviews [36]
= 12 (18–80 years, mean 52 years)Vestibular disorders with dizziness and loss of balanceTreadmill in a virtual grocery store on a screen(i) DHI
(ii) Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC)
(iii) Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)
(iv) Timed Up and Go (TUG)
(v) Sensory Organization Test (SOT)

Garcia et al. (2013)
Braz J
Otorhinolaryngol [37]
= 44 (18–60 years, mean 48 years)
(i) = 23 cases
(ii) = 21 controls
Unilateral or Bilateral Ménière’s diseaseBalance Rehabilitation Unit (BRU) with virtual reality glasses projecting visual stimuli(i) DHI
(ii) Analog dizziness scale
(iii) ENT examination
(iv) PTA audiometry, impedance
(v) Functional vestibular examination
(vi) Speech intelligibility testing
(vii) Posturography

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