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Advances in Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2803081, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2803081
Research Article

Osteogenic Potential of Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells for Calvaria Bone Regeneration

1Oral and Craniofacial Health Sciences Research, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7455, USA
2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0132, USA
3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7454, USA

Received 8 January 2016; Revised 4 April 2016; Accepted 6 April 2016

Academic Editor: Patrizia D’Amelio

Copyright © 2016 Dong Joon Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Osteogenic cells derived from rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPCs) were investigated for their potential use in bone regeneration. rMAPCs are adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that have a high proliferation capacity and the differentiation potential to multiple lineages. They may also offer immunomodulatory properties favorable for applications for regenerative medicine. rMAPCs were cultivated as single cells or as 3D aggregates in osteogenic media for up to 38 days, and their differentiation to bone lineage was then assessed by immunostaining of osteocalcin and collagen type I and by mineralization assays. The capability of rMAPCs in facilitating bone regeneration was evaluated in vivo by the direct implantation of multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC) aggregates in rat calvarial defects. Bone regeneration was examined radiographically, histologically, and histomorphometrically. Results showed that rMAPCs successfully differentiated into osteogenic lineage by demonstrating mineralized extracellular matrix formation in vitro and induced new bone formation by the effect of rMAPC aggregates in vivo. These outcomes confirm that rMAPCs have a good osteogenic potential and provide insights into rMAPCs as a novel adult stem cell source for bone regeneration.