Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2012, Article ID 140932, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/140932
Research Article

Examining the Impact of Nitrous Acid Chemistry on Ozone and PM over the Pearl River Delta Region

1Department of Mathematics, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
2Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC 27711, USA
3Division of Environment, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
4College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

Received 16 February 2012; Accepted 3 April 2012

Academic Editor: Tareq Hussein

Copyright © 2012 Rui Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. W. Harris, W. P. L. Cater, A. M. Winer, J. N. Pitts, U. Platt, and D. Perner, “Observations of nitrous acid in the Los Angeles atmosphere and implications for predictions of ozone-precursor relationships,” Environmental Science Technology, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 414–419, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. E. Jenkin, R. A. Cox, and D. J. Williams, “Laboratory studies of the kinetics of formation of nitrous acid from the thermal reaction of nitrogen dioxide and water vapour,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 487–498, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. M. Winer and H. W. Biermann, “Long pathlength differential optical absorption spectroscopy (Doas) measurements of gaseous HONO, NO2 and HCNO in the California South Coast Air Basin,” Research on Chemical Intermediates, vol. 20, no. 3–5, pp. 423–445, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Staffelbach, A. Neftel, and L. W. Horowitz, “Photochemical oxidant formation over Southern Switzerland 2. Model results,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 102, no. 19, pp. 23363–23373, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Alicke, U. Platt, and J. Stutz, “Impact of nitrous acid photolysis on the total hydroxyl radical budget during the Limitation of Oxidant Production/Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono study in Milan,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 107, no. 22, article 8196, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. Alicke, A. Geyer, A. Hofzumahaus et al., “OH formation by HONO photolysis during the BERLIOZ experiment,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 108, article 8247, 17 pages, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Acker, D. Möller, W. Wieprecht et al., “Strong daytime production of OH from HNO2 at a rural mountain site,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, Article ID L02809, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. H. Zhang, H. Su, L. J. Zhong et al., “Regional ozone pollution and observation-based approach for analyzing ozone-precursor relationship during the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 6203–6218, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. F. Elshorbany, R. Kurtenbach, P. Wiesen et al., “Oxidation capacity of the city air of Santiago, Chile,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 2257–2273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. K. D. Lu, Y. H. Zhang, H. Su et al., “Regional ozone pollution and key controlling factors of photochemical ozone production in Pearl River Delta during summer time,” Science China Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 651–663, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Kleffmann, T. Gavriloaiei, A. Hofzumahaus et al., “Daytime formation of nitrous acid: a major source of OH radicals in a forest,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, Article ID L05818, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. X. Ren, W. H. Brune, A. Oliger et al., “OH, HO2, and OH reactivity during the PMTACS-NY Whiteface Mountain 2002 campaign: obervations and model comparison,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 111, Article ID D10S03, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Mao, X. Ren, S. Chen et al., “Atmospheric oxidation capacity in the summer of Houston 2006: comparison with summer measurements in other metropolitan studies,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 33, pp. 4107–4115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. G. Calvert, G. Yarwood, and A. M. Dunker, “An evaluation of the mechanism of nitrous acid formation in the urban atmosphere,” Research on Chemical Intermediates, vol. 20, no. 3–5, pp. 463–502, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Lammel and J. N. Cape, “Nitrous acid and nitrate in the atmosphere,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 25, pp. 361–369, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. Kleffmann, “Daytime sources of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmospheric boundary layer,” ChemPhysChem, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1137–1144, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Aumont, F. Chervier, and S. Laval, “Contribution of HONO sources to the NOx/HOx/O3 chemistry in the polluted boundary layer,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 487–498, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Li, W. Lei, M. Zavala et al., “Impacts of HONO sources on the photochemistry in Mexico City during the MCMA-2006/MILAGO Campaign,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 6551–6567, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Kessler and U. Platt, “Nitrous acid in polluted air masses-sources and formation pathways,” in Physico-Chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants (Proceedings), B. Versino and G. Angeletti, Eds., pp. 412–422, Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  20. R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, J. A. G. Gomes et al., “Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, no. 20, pp. 3385–3394, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. W. Kirchstetter, R. A. Harley, and D. Littlejohn, “Measurement of nitrous acid in motor vehicle exhaust,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 2843–2849, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Li, J. Matthews, and A. Sinha, “Atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5870, pp. 1657–1660, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Sarwar, R. W. Pinder, K. W. Appel, R. Mathur, and A. G. Carlton, “Examination of the impact of photoexcited NO2 chemistry on regional air quality,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 40, pp. 6383–6387, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. N. Crowley and S. Carl, “OH formation in the photoexcitation of NO2 beyond the dissociation threshold in the presence of water vapor,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 101, no. 23, pp. 4178–4184, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Carr, D. E. Heard, and M. A. Blitz, “Comment on “atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O”,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5925, p. 336, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Li, J. Matthews, and A. Sinha, “Response to comment on ‘atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O’,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5925, p. 336, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Yarwood, S. Rao, M. Yocke, and G. Whitten, “Updates to the carbon bond chemical mechanism: CB05, final report to the U.S. EPA, RT-0400675,” 2005, http://www.camx.com/.
  28. I. Bejan, Y. Abd El Aal, I. Barnes et al., “The photolysis of ortho-nitrophenols: a new gas phase source of HONO,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 8, no. 17, pp. 2028–2035, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Svensson, E. Ljungstrom, and O. Lindqvist, “Kinetics of the reaction between nitrogen dioxide and water vapour,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1529–1539, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. F. Graham and B. J. Tyler, “Formation of nitrous acid in a gas-phase stirred flow reactor,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1, vol. 68, pp. 683–688, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Kleffmann, K. H. Becker, and P. Wiesen, “Heterogeneous NO2 conversion processes on acid surfaces: possible atmospheric implications,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2721–2729, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, L. M. Wingen, A. L. Sumner, D. Syomin, and K. A. Ramazan, “The heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO2 in laboratory systems and in outdoor and indoor atmospheres: an integrated mechanism,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 223–242, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Ammann, M. Kalberer, D. T. Jost et al., “Heterogeneous production of nitrous acid on soot in polluted air masses,” Nature, vol. 395, no. 6698, pp. 157–160, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Gutzwiller, F. Arens, U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, and M. Ammann, “Significance of semivolatile diesel exhaust organics for secondary HONO formation,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 677–682, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Kleffmann, K. H. Becker, M. Lackhoff, and P. Wiesen, “Heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on carbonaceous surfaces,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 1, no. 24, pp. 5443–5450, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Arens, L. Gutzwiller, U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, and M. Ammann, “Heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on diesel soot particles,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2191–2199, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. M. Rivera-Figueroa, A. L. Sumner, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, “Laboratory studies of potential mechanisms of renoxification of tropospheric nitric acid,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 548–554, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. M. Knipping and D. Dabdub, “Modeling surface-mediated renoxification of the atmosphere via reaction of gaseous nitric oxide with deposited nitric acid,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 36, no. 36-37, pp. 5741–5748, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. Stemmler, M. Ammann, C. Donders, J. Kleffmann, and C. George, “Photosensitized reduction of nitrogen dioxide on humic acid as a source of nitrous acid,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7081, pp. 195–198, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. K. Stemmler, M. Ndour, Y. Elshorbany et al., “Light induced conversion of nitrogen dioxide into nitrous acid on submicron humic acid aerosol,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 7, no. 16, pp. 4237–4248, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. X. Zhou, K. Civerolo, H. Dai, G. Huang, J. J. Schwab, and K. L. Demerjian, “Summertime nitrous acid chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer at a rural site in New York State,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 107, no. 21, article 4590, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. A. Ramazan, D. Syomin, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, “The photochemical production of HONO during the heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO2,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 3836–3843, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. E. Monge, B. D'Anna, L. Mazri et al., “Light changes the atmospheric reactivity of soot,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 15, pp. 6605–6609, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Vogel, H. Vogel, J. Kleffmann, and R. Kurtenbach, “Measured and simulated vertical profiles of nitrous acid—Part II. Model simulations and indications for a photolytic source,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 37, no. 21, pp. 2957–2966, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. W. Lei, R. Zhang, X. Tie, and P. Hess, “Chemical characterization of ozone formation in the Houston-Galveston area: a chemical transport model study,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 109, Article ID D12301, 15 pages, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. Sarwar, S. J. Roselle, R. Mathur, W. Appel, R. L. Dennis, and B. Vogel, “A comparison of CMAQ HONO predictions with observations from the Northeast Oxidant and Particle Study,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 23, pp. 5760–5770, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Gonçalves, D. Dabdub, W. L. Chang, F. Saiz, O. Jorba, and J. M. Baldasano, “The impact of different nitrous acid sources in the air quality levels of the lberian Peninsula,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, vol. 10, pp. 28183–28230, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. M. Hu, F. M. Zhou, K. S. Shao, Y. H. Zhang, X. Y. Tang, and J. Slanina, “Diurnal variations of aerosol chemical compositions and related gaseous pollutants in Beijing and Guangzhou,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health A, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 479–488, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y. H. Zhang, M. Hu, L. J. Zhong et al., “Regional integrated experiments on air quality over Pearl River Delta 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004): overview,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 6157–6173, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Qin, P. H. Xie, H. Su et al., “An observational study of the HONO-NO2 coupling at an urban site in Guangzhou City, South China,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 36, pp. 5731–5742, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, K. Lu et al., “Amplified trace gas removal in the troposphere,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5935, pp. 1702–1704, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. Su, Y. F. Cheng, P. Cheng et al., “Observation of nighttime nitrous acid (HONO) formation at a non-urban site during PRIDE-PRD2004 in China,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 6219–6232, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. D. Lu, Y. H. Zhang, H. Su et al., “Oxidant (O3+ NO2) production processes and formation regimes in Beijing,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, Article ID D07303, 18 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. D. Byun and K. L. Schere, “Review of the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components of the models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system,” Applied Mechanics Reviews, vol. 59, no. 1–6, pp. 51–76, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. E. Pleim and J. S. Chang, “A non-local closure model for vertical mixing in the convective boundary layer,” Atmospheric Environment A, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 965–981, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. Schell, I. J. Ackermann, H. Hass, F. S. Binkowski, and A. Ebel, “Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol within a comprehensive air quality model system,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 106, no. 22, pp. 28275–28293, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Nenes, C. Pilinis, and S. N. Pandis, “ISORROPIA: a new thermodynamic equilibrium model for multiphase multicomponent inorganic aerosols,” Aquatic Geochemistry, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 123–152, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. S. Binkowski and S. J. Roselle, “Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosol component 1. Model description,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 108, no. 4183, 18 pages, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. A. Grell, J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, “A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5),” NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  60. S. H. L. Yim, J. C. H. Fung, A. K. H. Lau, and S. C. Kot, “Developing a high-resolution wind map for a complex terrain with a coupled MM5/CALMET system,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 112, no. 5, Article ID D05106, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. J. C. F. Lo, A. K. H. Lau, J. C. H. Fung, and F. Chen, “Investigation of enhanced cross-city transport and trapping of air pollutants by costal and urban land-sea breeze circulations,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 111, Article ID D14104, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. X. Lu, K. C. Chow, T. Yao, J. C. H. Fung, and A. K. H. Lau, “Seasonal variation of the land-sea breeze circulation in the Pearl River Delta region,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 114, no. 17, Article ID D17112, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. P. Huang, J. C. H. Fung, and A. K. H. Lau, “Integrated processes analysis and systematic meteorological classification of ozone episodes in Hong Kong,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 111, Article ID D20309, 14 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. R. H. F. Kwok, J. C. H. Fung, A. K. H. Lau, and J. S. Fu, “Numerical study on seasonal variations of gaseous pollutants and particulate matters in Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, Article ID D16308, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. R. Houyoux, J. M. Vukovich, C. J. Coats Jr., N. M. Wheeler, and P. S. Kasibhatla, “Emission inventory development and processing for the seasonal model for regional air quality (SMRAQ) project,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 9079–9090, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. CH2M HILL (China) Limited, “Study of air quality in the Pearl River Delta region, technique report (Agreement No. CE 106/98) prepared for the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department,” Hong Kong Administrative Region Government, 2011, http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/air/studyrpts/study_pearl.html.
  67. USEPA, “SPECIATE data base V3.1,” Research Triangle Park, NC, US, 2000, http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/speciate/speciate32.html.
  68. J. E. Pleim and A. Xiu, “Development and testing of a surface flux and planetary boundary layer model for application in mesoscale models,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 16–32, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. R. Jones, Ammonia deposition to semi-natural vegetation [Ph.D. dissertation], University of Dundee, Scotland, UK, 2006.
  70. C. X. Cai, Implementation and performance evaluation on an air quality forecast modeling system (AQFMS) for northeastern USA [Ph.D. dissertation], Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY, USA, 2005.
  71. X. L. Zhou, H. L. Gao, Y. He et al., “Nitric acid photolysis on surfaces in low-NOx environments: significant atmospheric implications,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, no. 2217, 4 pages, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. J. Fan, B. M. Wang, M. Tesche et al., “Meteorological conditions and structures of atmospheric boundary layer in October 2004 over Pearl River Delta area,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 6174–6186, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. J. Willmott, “On the validation of models,” Physical Geography, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 184–194, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. USEPA, “Guidance on the use of models and other analyses in attainment demonstrations for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS,” EPA-454/R-99-004, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, US, 1999.
  75. J. Z. Yu, X. F. Huang, J. Xu, and M. Hu, “When aerosol sulfate goes up, so does oxalate: implication for the formation mechanisms of oxalate,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 128–133, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Zheng, L. Zhang, W. Che, Z. Zheng, and S. Yin, “A highly resolved temporal and spatial air pollutant emission inventory for the Pearl River Delta region, China and its uncertainty assessment,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 32, pp. 5112–5122, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. HKEPD (Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department), “Guideline on modeling vehicle emissions,” July 2005, http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/air/guide_ref/files/EMFAC_HK_Guidelines_on_Modelling_Vehicle_Emissions_July2005.pdf.
  78. HKPD (Hong Kong Planning Department), “Hong Kong 2030: planning vision and strategy consultancy study to analyze broad land use pattern of the Pearl River Delta Region,” 2003, http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/p_study/comp_s/hk2030/eng/consultants/pdf/Tpaper5.pdf.