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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2014, Article ID 685971, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/685971
Research Article

The Influence of Climate Factors, Meteorological Conditions, and Boundary-Layer Structure on Severe Haze Pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region during January 2013

1LAPC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2Hebei Province Meteorological Observatory, Shijiazhuang 050022, China

Received 18 July 2014; Accepted 13 October 2014; Published 17 November 2014

Academic Editor: Hiren Jethva

Copyright © 2014 Lili Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The air-pollution episodes in China in January 2013 were the most hazardous in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. PM2.5, AOD, and long-term visibility data, along with various climate and meteorological factors and the boundary-layer structure, were used to investigate the cause of the heavy-haze pollution events in January 2013. The result suggests that unfavorable diffusion conditions (weak surface winds and high humidity) and high primary-pollutant emissions have induced heavy-haze pollution in the BTH region over the past two decades. A sudden stratospheric warming (SSW), weak East Asian winter monsoon, a weak Siberian High, weak meridional circulation, southerly wind anomalies in the lower troposphere, and abnormally weak surface winds and high humidity were responsible for the severe haze pollution events, rather than an abrupt increase in emissions. Heavy/severe haze pollution is associated with orographic wind convergence zones along the Taihang and Yanshan Mountains, slight winds (1.7∼2.1 m/s), and high humidity (70%∼90%), which limits the diffusion of pollutants and facilitates the hygroscopic growth of aerosols. Recirculation and regional transport, along with the poorest diffusion conditions and favorable conditions for hygroscopic growth of aerosols and secondary transformation under the high emission, led to explosive growth and the record high hourly average concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing.