Figure 1: Topography of the northeastern Asia including Gangneung city (37°45′N, 128°54′E) with the establishment of a GRIMM aerosol sampler. Large and small squares in the center indicate the first domain with a 27 km grid interval on 91 × 91 horizontal grids and the third domain with a 3 km by three-nesting techniques in the WRF model simulation. A square in the left and a circle in the center denote Gobi Desert and Gangneung city equipped with an aerosol sampler, respectively.