About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 284213, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/284213
Review Article

Applications of Air Mass Trajectories

1Department of Applied Physics, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
2Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory, ENEA, Frascati, 00044 Rome, Italy
3School of Social, Development and Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
4School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India

Received 13 July 2014; Accepted 18 December 2014

Academic Editor: Hiroyuki Hashiguchi

Copyright © 2015 Isidro A. Pérez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Air trajectory calculations are commonly found in a variety of atmospheric analyses. However, most of reported research usually focuses upon the transport of pollutants via trajectory routes and not on the trajectory itself. This paper explores the major areas of research in which air trajectory analyses are applied with an effort to gain deeper insights into the key points which highlight the necessity of such analyses. Ranging from meteorological applications to their links with living beings, air trajectory calculations become important tool especially when alternative procedures do not seem possible. This review covers the reports published during last few years illustrating the geographical distribution of trajectory applications and highlighting the regions where trajectory application research proves most active and useful. As a result, relatively unexplored areas such as microorganism transport are also included, suggesting the possible ways in which successful use of air trajectory research should be extended.

1. Introduction

Atmospheric processes such as air pollution, dispersion of hazardous substances, or meteorological episodes have a noticeable impact on the life of human beings. These processes may be better understood when air trajectories are also included in the studies. Although a simple approach is to assume straight trajectories, experience reveals a more complex evolution [1]. Among the techniques used to investigate air trajectories, experimental determination is not commonplace, since complex and expensive measuring campaigns are involved. Another choice is the use of satellites [2, 3], although mathematical models are systematically applied.

Most applied models include HYSPLIT, where dispersion and deposition may be considered [4], the FLEXTRA model, which permits boundary layer trajectories and calculations with the vertical wind component equal to zero [5], or the recent METEX, which accepts meteorological data in different formats [6]. There are several reasons why models are widely used. The main reason is that these are freely available and prove extremely easy to apply since a reference site is considered where trajectories either arriving or leaving are calculated. In addition, input requirements are minimal. A further advantage is their extreme versatility, since they may be used not only for providing information about air pathways but also, together with additional variables such as temperature, moisture, or concentration, for giving information about sources. Moreover, models are subject to calibration and evaluation processes [7] and seem to evidence a similar ability to simulate air trajectories, with differences in formulations playing a secondary role [8]. The limitations inherent in models are the same as in conventional weather forecasts, since their accuracy may only be affected when their input variables are sparse. Uncertainty visualization methods have been proposed [9], and their results must be interpreted applying knowledge of meteorology, location, and the nature of possible pollution sources [10].

One noticeable feature of air trajectory models in any study is that their use may not be the objective of the research, but they may be taken as the basis for further calculations. Prominent among such applications is the widely used potential source contribution function [11]. However, other less frequently applied applications should also be mentioned. The proposal of wind direction sectors is a simple way for classifying air trajectories [12], which provides the basis for trajectory sector analysis [13] and for the more elaborate cluster analysis, which may be applied following different techniques [14], with the aim to obtain flow patterns. The recirculation factor was proposed some time ago although it has rarely been used [15]. By contrast, roundness has recently been applied in these calculations [16]. Trajectories are also used for smoothing and interpolating concentrations through the nonparametric regression procedure [17]. Tools such as TrajStat have recently been developed to simplify and facilitate easy visualisation of these calculations [18]. Trajectory statistics may be combined with detailed land cover analysis and meteorological data to obtain information concerning the history of air masses [19]. In addition, transport models combined with satellite observations provide a spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations and improve air quality forecasts [20].

The current paper focuses on applications of air trajectories. Due to the satisfactory features of the models, fields of application vary enormously. One application of trajectories is identification of pollution sources such as deserts, which are considered as natural sources of particulate matter [21]. Although urban and industrial areas are also identified as sources of particulate matter, these are considered as anthropogenic sources. Since the distance travelled by air mass may differ from local to regional or long-range transport affecting various atmospheric depositions and phenomena, broad areas of trajectory applications should be considered. In these latter cases, the air parcel may receive injections from varying sources during its trip due to which its initial properties may be altered considerably depending on surface characteristics and travel time [22]. Moreover, models may be validated and compared [2325]. Widespread application of air trajectories, which ensures their usefulness, justifies a specific study in order to fill a gap in the area of applied atmosphere research.

To accomplish this objective, research reports published in recent years have been reviewed. One possible choice is certain representative papers and the removal of collateral treatments. However, the current paper considers an extensive number of studies in order to secure precise knowledge of research fields where the said technique is used, this ranging from only meteorology to air pollution or pollen spread. Proposing a classification is by no means easy due to overlaps in the research covered by the various groups suggested. However, establishing classes seems necessary if information is to be simplified and if insights concerning the type of application and targets pursued are to be gained. The groups proposed are inhomogeneous both in the number of papers published and in their geographical distribution. This results in generation of knowledge more effectively out of the research that involved multiple resources and the regions where this analysis is applied. The reported studies have been grouped into five categories, namely, (i) meteorological applications, (ii) air chemistry, (iii) hazardous substances, (iv) aerosols, and (v) living beings. These groups are divided into several subgroups where the main applications or results are presented. Although a close relationship between papers in each group would be desirable, it is not easy to link various studies as some workers analyse isolated events, time intervals of the studies do not overlap, airflows are conditioned by the orography, there may be differences in measuring height, and so forth.

However, air trajectory analysis sometimes fails to reveal differences in air masses from widely varying geographical regions. In such cases work needs to be carried out in order to secure more precise knowledge of air trajectory application limits.

2. Meteorological Applications

2.1. Cyclones and Synoptic Meteorology

Cyclone evolution has been studied worldwide, particularly over oceans, such as the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean [26] or over the North Atlantic with the interpretation of potential vorticity inversions [27]. Over the Northern Hemisphere, extratropical cyclones have been tracked and predictions verified [28]. The “Perfect Storm” cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic has been analysed [29]. Determining the trajectory of medicanes, intense storms over the Mediterranean similar to tropical ones, is valuable because of the enormous potential damage given the fact that coastal regions are densely populated [30]. The role of sea surface heat fluxes was considered over this sea, the properties being modified in numerical simulations to observe the evolution of the cyclone [31]. Over subtropical East Asia, in spring 2004, air masses transported low O3 concentrations to higher latitudes following the circulation associated with the Sudal typhoon and the northern Hadley cell [32]. The hybrid characteristics of a low pressure system over the Tasman Sea with an erratic track before decay were studied [33].

Other cyclonic circulations that have been analysed include US tornadic environments [34], which are substantially higher than their European counterparts due to blocking by the Alps and the colder sea surface over the Atlantic Ocean [35]. Severe weather events (intense hail, major convective gusts, or strong tornados) associated with elevated mixed-layer air were investigated in the northeastern US [36]. The evolution of remnants of a haboob, a convectively driven dust storm, was analysed in Phoenix, AZ, where this is an unusual event [37]. Backward trajectories were used to examine a warm-core meso-β-scale vortex formation associated with the “Super Derecho” convective event observed on 8 May 2009 at Kansas [38].

Several examples illustrate general applications of air circulation. The relationship between air trajectories and the spatial synoptic classification was considered at Martinsburg, WV [39]. A polar vortex was responsible for an advective cooling event over almost the whole of Iran [40]. Generalised frosts over southern South America were favoured by remotely excited Rossby waves [41]. Air trajectories were used to investigate transport from the planetary boundary layer to the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone [42]. Eight weather regimes were described in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Four wet regimes observed preferentially during summer were linked with shorter trajectories at lower levels than dry regimes, which were observed throughout the year [43]. Two trajectory clusters were considered in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica, the oceanic/west Antarctic, and continental/east Antarctic [44].

The relationship between wind and air trajectories has occasionally been analysed and has revealed that the regional prevailing NW winds over the East Mediterranean are the strongest prior to cool events [45] and the air mass transformation over the western North Pacific controls the characteristics of the Yamase wind [46].

Recirculation processes are the meteorological features responsible for high pollutant concentrations, such as those observed over the East Mediterranean region [47] and during O3 episodes in the Lower Fraser Valley, Canada [48]. Stagnant airflow was another noticeable meteorological feature that determined enhanced concentration of particles in summer over the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea and near Japan [49].

Orographic effects sometimes have a marked effect on airflow, such as uplift in the Eastern Pyrenees, which determined and maintained heavy precipitation from 6 to 8 November 1982 [50], flow splitting and cyclogenesis in the lee of Greenland, Denmark [51], atmospheric circulation at Mount Rwenzori, Uganda [52], or the lifting process over the North Pacific west of the California coast prior to heavy precipitation over the Sierra Nevada [53].

Singular meteorological applications of air trajectories include temporal changes in angular momentum used to diagnose trajectories over large scale distances [54], investigating the spatial structure of surface temperature by quantification of the time that an air parcel spends over ocean and land [55], the influence of fog on visibility [56], and the influence of large scale subsidence in the meteorology of major wildfire events in the northeast US [57] or describing troposphere-stratosphere exchange over Asia [58, 59].

2.2. Atmospheric Moisture

Several studies have shown the link between the origin of air masses and their moisture content. Analysis of tropical moisture exports to the Northern Hemisphere revealed that it made a significant contribution to regional precipitation and showed four activity centres: the central and eastern Pacific Ocean, east South America and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean, the western Indian Ocean, and western Australia [60, 61]. Analysis of the transport and transformation of water in the tropical tropopause layer revealed that deep convection moistened this layer [62]. Latitudinal advection of moisture over the ocean has been investigated and has provided negative correlations with latitude [63]. Two clusters of intense water vapour transport from the Pacific Ocean to the western coast of North America have been established, the first associated with zonal trajectories and the second with meridional flows [64]. The major direct moisture sources for the Yangtze River Valley are over the valley itself, with major moisture transport being over land, and the ocean proving important in initiating moisture transfer [65]. The Tibet Plateau, which has a major impact on the water cycle, was revealed as a crossroad of air masses, air entering from the NW and NE and flowing in two streams, one SW over the Indian Ocean and another SE through the western North Pacific [66]. High column water vapour conditions at Nauru, in the western equatorial Pacific, were frequently associated with weakened inflow from dry regions to the east of Nauru [67]. Moisture corridors responsible for water vapour transport from remote sources to the Snowy Mountains region, Australia, where they determined precipitation events, were identified [68]. Two moisture sources were detected in the Galician/northern Portugal region: the Bay of Biscay and the Tropical and Subtropical North Atlantic corridor [69] and potential temperature and specific humidity of trajectory clusters affecting the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analysed [70]. The variability of H2O in the Antarctic PBL has also been explained, since a minimum H2O is observed when air transits over the Antarctic Plateau [71].

2.3. Clouds

Air trajectory analysis revealed the noticeable effect of aerosol on clouds. In Oklahoma, aerosols associated with maritime and northerly air trajectories have a greater effect on clouds than those from northwesterly trajectories, which also exert local influence [72]. The influence of previous meteorological conditions on properties of subtropical clouds in the northeast Atlantic and their evolution were studied by trajectory analysis [73]. Pollution from the Shanghai-Nanjing and Jinan industrial areas in China affected wintertime clouds and precipitation over the East China Sea [74]. The region off the west coast of Africa was divided into 1° × 1° grid boxes where boxes associated with aerosols of oceanic origin had a lower cloud fraction than those associated with continental origin [75].

Trajectory analysis revealed that subsidence and advections from the SE and SW maintained an unusually dense regional advection-radiation fog over Anhui, China, while the northwesterly dry wind determined dissipation of the fog [76].

Research into haze episodes in northwestern Thailand revealed that air masses passed over dense biomass hotspots before reaching the measuring site [77].

The relationship between ice in clouds and aerosols was investigated in an extratropical cyclonic storm over the western Pacific Ocean [78], and nucleation of ice was studied on polar stratospheric clouds [79].

2.4. Precipitation

Establishing an initial relationship between precipitation and air masses involves identifying the origin of precipitation episodes. In Europe, over half the observed precipitation in Belgrade, Serbia, corresponded to airflow from the SW, SE, and NW [80]. Two flow types were responsible for extreme rainwater pollution episodes in the protected area of Wielkopolski National Park (western central Poland) [81]. Back trajectories reaching four stations in Europe, Oslo, Bremen, Smolensk, and Budapest, for days with the highest amount of snowfall revealed that humid air was transported over long distances and was shifted from the low troposphere to the upper layers [82]. Wet deposition in the southeastern Adriatic region is dominated by precipitation from the Mediterranean Sea [83], and Saharan dust transport across Europe determined “red” or “blood” rains [84]. In South America, precipitation events in the southern Peruvian Andes mainly occurred under weak flow regimes from nearby Amazon basin sources [85]. In North America, upstream air trajectories provided information on moisture source regions and low level flow affecting the southern Appalachians [86], and trajectories with a Great Lakes connection determined higher snowfall totals on parts of the higher elevation windward slopes in the southern Appalachians [87]. Certain precipitation events in Newfoundland, Canada, were associated with trajectories originating in the Gulf of Mexico [88, 89]. In Asia, isotopic composition of water across the Himalaya and eastern Tibetan Plateau was controlled by local processes, although air trajectories indicated changes in the mixing over the plateau [90]. Westerly air masses in summer, and westerly and polar air masses in winter, transported moisture for precipitation events in the upper Urumqi River Basin, central Asia [91]. Varied air masses affected Beijing, China, during the Asian monsoon period [92]. Low pH of rain water has been reported due to air masses originating from Gulf region arriving at Hudegadde site located in an ecological sensitive area of Western Ghats of India [93].

The contrast between marine and terrestrial air masses was observed in Aveiro, Portugal [94], on the island of Bermuda by nitrate composition [95], in Florianopolis, Brazil, by air pollutant content [96], in the Yangtze River Basin with δ18O and δD concentration [97], and also near Sydney, Australia, by the δ18O composition of precipitation [98]. Aerosol concentration may identify the type of air mass. The advection of subtropical and tropical moisture caused the most isotopically enriched precipitation in southern California [99]. Two basic raindrop size evolutions were observed during the Queensland Cloud Seeding Research Program, one associated with continental air masses, with relatively high aerosol concentrations and long air trajectories over land, and the other related to maritime air masses with lower aerosol concentrations [100].

Pollution sources may also be identified since enhanced concentrations of trace elements in precipitation in a rural area of South Korea were associated with industrialized areas of China and metropolitan areas of South Korea [101]. Aerosol and precipitation data at the Maldives Climate Observatory have been divided into two groups with pollution days with airflow from the Indian subcontinent in a northeasterly sector during winter and clear monsoon days with southerly flow from the Indian Ocean with high concentrations attributed to long-range transport from the Australian or African continents [102].

Trajectory analysis in height may provide information about pollution sources, such as advection in the middle troposphere from Western Poland and Germany, which was a possible source of pollution by fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in Wielkopolski National Park, west central Poland. However, short distance transport from local emitters was the main source in the lower troposphere [103].

Increased concentration due to the absence of precipitation has also been analysed at a remote site, Mt. Norikura, Japan, where aerosol transport from sources to surface without precipitation scavenging after entrainment in the free troposphere enhanced mass concentration [104].

Types of trajectories may be identified by the composition of rainwater. A classification based on the relationship between rainfall chemistry and air trajectories was established in Minnesota [105].

Organic chemicals may be transported in the free troposphere by clouds, such as those formed in midwestern and southeastern US, which determined hail storms in Toronto, Canada, where these chemicals were recorded [106] and hail occurrence in the North German Lowlands was studied by the influence of atmospheric circulation [107].

Different air mass movement was responsible for unequal sea-salt concentration of snow deposited in the Japan Alps during the winter monsoon [108]. The relationship between ice nuclei concentrations and air pathways was studied at different altitudes in the Huangshan Mountains, SE China [109]. Atmospheric transport from NW India and Nepal was detected in snow composition from the Jima Yagzong glacier in the central Himalayas [110], and high concentrations of black carbon from south Asia were observed in the ice cores of the Everest region in the monsoon season [111]. High dust concentrations in snow on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, were transported from the Sahara, although the Middle East was revealed as a secondary source [112]. Blocking high pressure systems over Scandinavia and the advection of western European pollution determined high concentrations of nitrogen deposited over Svalbard, Norway [113]. Transport pathways and source regions of climate proxies were considered in polar ice core analysis [114116].

3. Air Chemistry Applications

3.1. Common Air Pollutants

Study of air pollution transport is a direct application of air trajectory analysis. In Israel, most air pollution is a consequence of long-range transport from eastern and southern Europe [117], since most air masses reaching this area reflect 2-3-day transport times. On the contrary, severe air pollution atmospheric conditions in Istanbul, Turkey, were attributed to a high pressure system, which led to the formation of an exceptional ground-based temperature inversion, long-range transport of Saharan dust being excluded [118]. Large scale synoptic air pollutant transport has been observed at high elevation sites in the Alps [119]. Daily variations of pollutants in a heavily industrialized area in central Spain have been studied [120]. The scale of the NO2 spatial-temporal variability in the near-surface layer was estimated in the vicinities of St. Petersburg, Russia [121]. In Asia, long distance sources contributed to SO2 recorded over Delhi, India, during winter, with marine influence being noticeable during monsoon, whereas regional sources prevailed during summer [122]. The heaviest air pollution episodes in Ürümqi, China, have been analysed with synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation and air mass characteristics [123]. The close relationship between air pollution and winter monsoon meteorology was analysed in Hanoi, Vietnam [124]. In North America, trajectories were also considered in a cluster analysis of pollutant concentrations in Boston, MA [125]. The presence of long-lived contaminants at remote sites was also investigated, as in the Yukon Territory where the Arctic Ocean, northern Siberia, Canadian Yukon, and Northwest Territories were sources of semivolatile organic compounds [126].

In contrast, clean sectors may be also identified. A study of air mass trajectories arriving at Mace Head, Ireland, revealed that the eastern North Atlantic is one of the cleanest regions in the Northern Hemisphere [127].

Air transport between the US and Windsor, Canada, is very frequent. However, its air quality should not be only analysed from the air masses originating in the US [128].

Singular applications are the investigation of potential sources of odour problems [129], identifying upwind sources, which might affect air quality levels in Seoul, South Korea, and downwind areas affected by this city [130] or identifying sources from seven regions affecting two receptors in the eastern US [131].

3.2. Ozone and Photochemistry

Several studies have proved the usefulness of air trajectory analysis in photochemistry, since precursors may be transported to form secondary pollutants, which are also transported. This section first focuses on O3 records. In North America, increases in O3 and CO concentrations at Whistler Mountain in British Columbia, Canada, were attributed to fires in the Russian Federation or Alaska and the Yukon Territory that were transported by the prevailing westerly winds [132]. GIS and back trajectory analyses indicated that mobile sources contributed to O3 formation over the Jackson region, MS [133]. Weather patterns and trajectories were classified to study high O3 episodes in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area [134]. The impact of wildfires on O3 events was analysed in the western US [135]. The warm conveyor belt of a cyclone lofted pollutants responsible for O3 high concentrations over the western North Atlantic Ocean into the free troposphere [136]. In Europe, exceptional meteorological conditions have been considered to explain very high levels in Madrid, Spain [137]. Air masses from industrialized continental Europe and wildfire emissions determined high O3 levels in southern Italy, whereas the North African desert region was associated with lower concentrations [138]. O3 trends at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, were linked to the origin of air masses [139]. Two major routes of long-range transport were observed in the Balkans, though both appeared with the same direction of local winds in Patras, Greece. During the cold months, the amount of O3 transported was greater than that due to local formation, with the opposite being true during warm months [140]. In Asia, O3 episodes in Malaysia were attributed to regional transport from biomass burning in Sumatra, Indonesia, as well as long-range transport from Indo-China [141]. Moreover, transport, airflow pattern, stagnation, and the boundary layer height determined the concentrations recorded at certain sites in India and the Bay of Bengal [142148]. In China, transport from eastern, central, and southern China, specifically linked with tropical cyclones, was a factor determining the high levels measured in Hong Kong [149]. Stagnation and recirculation of air, together with intense solar radiation, high temperature, and long-range transport of pollutants, were responsible for O3 episodes at urban Jinan [150]. High biogenic volatile organic carbon emissions from the vegetation of the Qinling Mountains caused the three longest O3 pollution episodes in Xi’an [151].

Another source of O3 in the low atmosphere is its transport from the stratosphere, where three phases have been identified, tropopause crossing, free descent, and quasi-horizontal dispersion in the lower troposphere [152]. Trajectory analysis revealed an important direct stratospheric impact in greater Athens, Greece, causing a noticeable increase in surface concentrations with no photochemical origin [153]. Moreover, vertical transport from aloft has emerged as the main mechanism to replenish the atmospheric boundary layer at Alert, Nunavut, Canada [154]. Contrastingly, bubbles of low O3 concentration were observed in the tropical tropopause layer in the equatorial region around Central and South America originating from deep convection in the equatorial eastern Pacific and/or Panama Bight regions [155].

The rest of the section is devoted to other pollutants involved in atmospheric photochemistry. Plumes analysed revealed that peroxyacetyl nitrate, PAN, another less studied secondary pollutant, recorded at Mt. Bachelor, OR, was of both Asian and North American origin [156].

Air trajectories have also been used to study precursors of photochemical pollutants such as volatile organic compounds, VOC. Air masses from Eurasia contained the lowest VOC levels compared to others from China and India at the Mt. Waliguan station in the northeast part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau [157]. Moreover, high CH4 concentrations at this site were associated with advection from heavily populated regions and rice-growing areas [158]. Another site where the relative contribution of anthropogenic VOC sources to O3 formation has been investigated is the region of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, where precursors from land sources were transported offshore determining high VOC concentrations overseas [159, 160].

3.3. Trace Gases

CO2 in the atmosphere is considered a trace gas in most of the measurements. Transport influence was revealed, since possible maxima or minima observed in the CO2 trend at two European remote sites could be due to contamination of the air mass during the whole of its trip [161]. The impact on this gas concentration of emissions from the city of Valladolid, Spain, and recirculation processes were assessed at a rural site [162]. The effect of long-range transport from industrial and natural sources on CO2 has been observed at the remote site of Lampedusa Island, Italy. The back trajectory study associated with in situ data demonstrated that industrial activities and forests located in Eastern Europe and Russia may strongly affect the recorded CO2 [163].

Other trace gases such as SO2 and NOx have also been considered which were transported to the Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station, Finland, mainly from Eastern Europe [164]. Emissions in the UK and Europe have a noticeable effect on NO2 concentrations recorded at sites not directly influenced by major local sources in Ireland [165].

A low CO episode in northern Japan was attributed to rapid transport of pristine air masses from the Pacific Ocean under anomalously stronger easterly flows [166].

Air trajectories have been considered with less investigated substances, such as halogenated very short lived substances, whose research has revealed that air masses from the open North Atlantic prevailed in the Mauritanian upwelling area [167] or concentrations of dimethyl sulfide emitted by oceans, which were followed by an aircraft over the Pacific Ocean [168].

4. Applications in Transport of Hazardous Substances

4.1. Radionuclide Transport

The plume from the Fukushima reactor released on 11 March 2011 remained over the ocean due to westerly winds [169]. However, the arrival of artificial radionuclides was confirmed during the first days after the accident at nearby stations in Vietnam [170] and at such distant locations as the Iberian Peninsula and Lithuania [171, 172]. For about one month, the radioactive plume reached South Korea by surface westerlies followed by a period characterised by a direct impact of air masses from Japan [173]. Precise determination of the area affected by this radioactive plume has been obtained at various places in the Northern Hemisphere [174].

Direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site, Kazakhstan, to Norway through large areas of Europe was observed [175]. Moreover, at least one unannounced low yield nuclear test in North Korea was investigated from radionuclides measured in South Korea, Japan, and Russia [176]. Several models were compared with 85Kr air concentrations in the area surrounding a nuclear processing plant in North West France where mean concentrations were estimated during steady wind conditions, although peaks were not accurately predicted under changing wind conditions [177]. Possible sources of Xe and Kr radionuclides were determined by back trajectory analysis in St. Petersburg, Russia, from Sweden and Finland [178]. Integrated effects of transport and meteorology have been observed in radionuclide activities in southern Spain and the transitional location of the Iberian Peninsula was revealed [179].

Additionally, radiological risk was assessed in the metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea [180], and dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout could be simulated with trajectory models to estimate the magnitude of the deposited activity at different test sites [181].

4.2. Insecticides/Pesticides/Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

The seasonal evolution of trajectories may illustrate the behaviour of concentrations. Northwesterly air mass pathways reaching Lake Small Baiyangdian, northern China, were linked with high concentrations in winter, southern pathways being relatively clean in summer and trajectories in autumn and spring being associated with high pollution from the Shanxi and Henan provinces [182].

Transport described by air trajectories may be extremely useful to reveal the origin of these pollutants. The Himalayas might be influenced by the major source regions in both India and China [183]. Air masses from China, India, Southeast Asia, and West Asia influenced concentrations recorded in Lhasa on the Tibetan Plateau [184]. Pesticides over the Pearl River Delta Region were transported from potential source regions, northern China, and local usage was also noticeable [185]. Some of the air masses reaching Singapore came from the west of Papua New Guinea where DDT was still in use [186]. However, in seven major cities in India, source areas of polychlorinated biphenyls were confined to local or regional proximity [187].

Pesticides have been recorded at the Antarctic continent due to air masses from the Indian and Atlantic Oceans [188], and insecticides used extensively in southern East Europe and around rivers flowing to the Aral Sea were transported to Arctic areas [189].

In America, transport of these substances has also been observed. Four main pathways with high pollutant concentrations were identified at Arcadia National Park, ME, and not exclusively linked with the major urban centres along the eastern Atlantic seaboard [190] and different models were used to quantify atmospheric transport of POP concentrations to the Great Lakes [191].

4.3. Toxic Metals

Transport of various toxic metals such as mercury, lead, and arsenic has also been studied using air trajectories. In northeastern North America, shipping ports along the Atlantic coast emerged as the main Hg sources and the contrast between oceanic and land/coastal trajectories was also observed [192]. In northern Mississippi, events of atmospheric Hg were linked with air masses from the northern continental US region [193]. In Canada, major sources affecting Windsor extended from Ohio to Texas [194], and unseasonable high total gaseous Hg concentrations at Fort McMurray were associated with air from the SE and W, whereas low concentrations were from Arctic air [195]. The Hg highest concentrations at a tropical site in Nieuw Nickerie, Suriname, were obtained with marine trajectories from the North Hemisphere [196]. Hg concentrations recorded in the Fujian province, China, are diluted by air masses from the ocean [197]. Northern India may also be a noticeable Hg source for the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau [198]. Hg concentrations at Oxford, UK, are highest with wind from the E/SE, probably due to emissions from London/mainland Europe [199].

Six meteorological regimes were determined at Bondville, IL, where differences in Pb isotopes in precipitation were observed [200].

Air trajectories were used to analyse As transport and dispersion from a Cu smelter in southwestern Spain with satisfactory results under sea breeze circulations or flow dominated by synoptic scale prevailing winds [201].

5. Applications on Sources and Transport of Aerosols

5.1. Particulate Matter

Seasonal variation of the particulate matter composition in agreement with the air trajectories was observed in eastern India [202] and high concentrations are sometimes due to transport from sources, as was detected in North America [203], South America [204], Asia [205212], especially in China [213217], the Middle East [218], Africa [219], Australia [220], and Europe [221].

Stagnant conditions caused the highest mass concentrations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia [222]. Internal sources of particles were less relevant in South Korea than external, which were the industrial areas in inland China and the Gobi desert. However, anomalous meteorological factors favoured both long-range transport from external sources and local accumulation [223, 224]. Strong land-sea breeze led to accumulation and ageing of particles in Hong Kong, China [225]. Dust aerosols from the Gobi Desert and the Loess Plateau are likely to propagate eastward but aerosols from the Taklamakan Desert propagate slowly westward [226] and both deserts were responsible for dust events over northern China [227]. Transport patterns were obtained in Beijing [228]. Potential sources of particulates recorded near the terminal of the Laohugou No. 12 Glacier in northwestern Qilian Shan were identified in the NW from the station due to industrial activities, urbanization, and residents’ emissions [229]. Different air mass types were considered in Guangzhou, where transboundary transport played a critical role in the formation of PM10 pollution events [230]. Air mass pathways at New Delhi, India, revealed the difference in the levels of particulate matter during monsoon and winter air mass circulations [231]. Long-range transport from the Thar Desert, Iran, and Pakistan prevailed in Agra in summer, whereas short trajectories from local areas revealed anthropogenic emissions in winter [232]. Northern and central part of India contributed to high black carbon levels in Mumbai [233]. Dust storms from the Middle East reached Rawalpindi, Pakistan [234]. Similar kind of storm has been simulated over Iran [235]. Some extreme soil dust events originated in major agricultural regions in Australia and not in deserts [236]. In Europe, seven fingerprints of urban aerosols were identified in Helsinki, Finland, during 2006, where local or regional origin was considered [237]. Several methods were combined to distinguish long-range transport, regional transport, and local pollution in Central Eastern European urban areas [238]. Coarse material was transported over distances of 1400 to 2000 km from Ukraine to the Czech Republic [239]. Local and regional scale aerosols transported were studied over Belgrade, Serbia [240], and long-range transport from Europe and the Sahara has a major influence in Italy [241, 242]. Trajectory calculations confirmed the origin of different size dust in Rome and Bari [243, 244]. Over the Mississippi Gulf Coast region, backward and forward trajectory analysis revealed particulate matter origin near the region and the relative contribution of some power plants to concentrations measured [245]. Local regions were the main contributors to sulphate concentrations estimated at Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge, NJ, and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, TN [246]. A contrast between local and distant sources was observed in the composition of particulate matter recorded in northern Chile [247].

Long-range transport has also been revealed by vertical analyses in Greece and Antarctica [248, 249].

The contrast between air masses from continent and ocean has been observed on recorded concentrations. Two classes of aerosols were identified during the World Exposition 2010 in Shanghai, China, class I linked with ocean-oriented air masses and class II associated with regional pollution transport from the surrounding areas [250]. Air masses reaching Iksan, a suburban area in South Korea, came from arid Chinese regions and caused high particulate concentration during the yellow dust period. However, air masses during a rainfall period were mostly from the Pacific Ocean or the East China Sea, and their concentrations were relatively low [251]. Four classes of air trajectories were observed over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea showing differences in the composition of the aerosols measured [252]. Marine aerosols from the North Sea and English Channel were identified by trajectory analysis at northern Bohemia [253]. Maritime transport had a noticeable influence on air quality in Lisbon since anthropogenic aerosol concentration decreased significantly [254]. Along a cruise track in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, air masses were characterised as European-influenced, primarily marine, or North-African influenced and aerosol composition was analysed [255]. Sea salt origin was noticed in aerosols over the Niger Delta region [256]. Particulate measurements taken at Santiago, Chile, revealed three main sources, marine air masses combined with anthropogenic sources, copper smelters surrounding the city, and wood burning [257].

Continental air masses are normally more polluted. Aerosols from Asian dust source regions and eastern China increased element concentrations at Gosan, South Korea. However, these concentrations decreased in air masses that passed over marine regions [258, 259]. Air masses from Eastern Europe led to significantly higher airborne concentrations of non-sea salt Ca and K in rural areas of Norway [260].

Specific features of maritime air masses have been considered in certain analyses. Prevailing pathways were observed over the “Maritime Continent,” the tropical Southeast Asia area extending across the Indonesian archipelago, the Malay Peninsula, and New Guinea [261]. Moreover, these masses allow aerosol formation to be investigated, as over a midlatitude forest in Japan, where new particle formation occurred in clean maritime air masses from the North Pacific, which had low mass concentrations of aerosol components [262].

Dust intrusions from deserts are frequent sources of particles in Eastern China, Europe, West Africa, and the Subtropical Eastern North Atlantic region [263269].

One specific source is volcanic ash whose dispersion may be analysed using air trajectories. An intense relationship between surface particle distribution and rain intensity was observed from volcanic ash at Mount Merapi, Indonesia [270].

5.2. Forest Fire and Biomass Burning

Transport of pollution from active fires is sometimes observed long distances away, as at the southeastern Tibetan Plateau from fires in the SE Asia subcontinent and from northern South Asia [271]. The influence of sea and land breezes has also been evidenced in Borneo [272]. This transport was determined by a lidar, model trajectory calculations and satellite observations in Canada [273]. Moreover, influence of biomass burning was observed in precipitation events in the southern Appalachian Mountains from November to April [274]. Soil aerosols, industrial areas, and biomass burning were responsible for particulate matter recorded in the Mexico urban area [275, 276]. Black carbon at the background station in Preila, Lithuania, was explained by air mass trajectory analysis from biomass burning at the Kaliningrad region, Ukraine, and southwestern Russia [277]. Biomass burning particles originating in Canadian forest fires were observed at the EARLINET Granada station, Spain [278], and different influences were observed in South Korea [279].

A strong link between CO episodes from biomass burning in Borneo, Sumatra, New Guinea, and Northern Australia and El Niño-southern oscillation activity has been observed [280]. PM10 load increased in the Brahmaputra Valley, India, during festive biomass burning called meji burning and its carbon content was more pronounced due to the long-range transport of carbonaceous aerosols to the region [281].

5.3. Atmospheric Optics

Some papers focus on the optical properties of the atmosphere. Local and remote sources of dust storms were identified in Saudi Arabia [282]. Maximum aerosol optical depth at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, was due to local sources, long-range transport of air masses from India and Afghanistan, and explosions detonated by the Pakistan army [283]. Differences between pre- and postmonsoon air masses as well as trajectories with high loading of atmospheric aerosols were observed in the Gangetic plain, Hyderabad, India, and the Bay of Bengal [284287]. The optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Sinhagad, India, have also been studied [288]. A persistent “aerosol low” was recorded over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal prior to the formation of cyclones [289]. A bimodal distribution pattern of aerosol optical depth was observed over both the western and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean [290]. Optical properties of aerosols were analysed over Anhui, China, and related with the origin of air masses [291]. Transport from the Asian continent to the free troposphere over Japan has been studied [292]. Saharan dust events were recorded by lidar observations over Thessaloniki, Greece [293], and three desert dust sources were considered for African air masses reaching Granada, Spain, (1) N Morocco and NW Algeria, (2) Western Sahara, NW Mauritania, and SW Algeria, and (3) eastern Algeria and Tunisia [294]. Some episodes with high aerosol optical depth over Finland were linked to the transport of polluted air masses from industrial areas in Central Europe [295]. Additional information about the origin of the aerosol layers detected at Sofia, Bulgaria, was obtained by air trajectories [296, 297]. The vertical structure of aerosol optical properties in coastal areas depends on air mass advection direction and altitude, as observed in Crete, Greece, and Rozewie, Poland [298]. Volcanic ash transported from Iceland to the Polish Polar Station, Svalbard, Norway, has been confirmed by trajectory analysis [299] and was also detected in Minsk, Belarus, Tomsk, and Vladivostok, Russia [300]. Different air mass source regions reaching the southern Arizona region have been considered [301]. Specific episodes of large values of aerosol optical depth at Córdoba, Argentina, were explained by fires and/or long-range transport [302]. Air masses in Skukuza, South Africa, had longer advection pathways where their properties could be affected during autumn and winter [303]. A detailed classification of air trajectories at Niamey, Niger, revealed the origin of the air sampled [304].

However, some studies have highlighted the suitability of sites from the noticeable optical quality of the atmosphere. One site in Namibia is favoured to install the Cherenkov Telescope Array due to its satisfactory conditions [305], and air mass trajectories have also been studied above the Pierre Auger Observatory, in the Pampa Amarilla, Argentina [306].

6. Applications on Living Beings

Some substances harmful to human health such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are carcinogenic and mutagenic, originated from local pollution sources in Zaragoza, Spain, with long-range transport from European countries being infrequent [307]. However, long-range transport of these substances caused by particulates from coal or biomass burning in China might have strongly influenced their levels and patterns at Gosan, South Korea [308]. Intrusions of Saharan dust were identified in summertime in Delhi, India, where cancer risk due to inhalation exposure to different chemicals has been observed [309]. Remote regions may be affected, since polychlorinated naphthalenes, which have been associated with liver damage in humans, were studied by air trajectory analysis at two background stations in Sweden [310]. Semivolatile organic compounds hazardous to health released during the “Allied Force” operation in the spring of 1999 in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia were transported across borders over large distances [311]. An analysis of human exposure to air pollution, based on the risk of being hospitalised for respiratory illness, enabled meteorological patterns associated with “polluted” air parcels and “clean” air parcels in the state of New York to be identified [312].

Bioaerosol sources have also been investigated using trajectory analysis. Pollen produced by certain species causes intensive allergies in sensitive individuals. Two kinds of sources of one of the most feared pollens were identified in the atmosphere of Istanbul. The first sources were local and the second were formed by regional and remote sources [313]. Atmospheric pathways affecting pollen in Thessaloniki, Greece, Szeged, Hungary, and Hamburg, Germany, have been studied [314]. Pollen grains of ragweed from the Pannonian Plain, Central Europe, were transported to the Nordic countries [315]. Potential sources of Olea Pollen were identified, and transport caused high concentrations at night in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula [316]. Moreover, complex terrain affects trajectories, and transport of this pollen under this specific flow has been analysed [317], as well as pollen transport from the west to the east slope of the Andes [318]. Cedar pollen prevailed in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan [319], and Asian soybean rust urediniospores in the Midwestern US were transported from southern Texas and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico [320].

Air trajectories may also prove helpful in investigating the transport of organisms such as microbial populations probably originating near China or Japan, recorded at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory, Oregon [321]. Since the Himalayas are a barrier to atmospheric transport, analysis of soils revealed that dust and microbes deposited came from continental, lacustrine, and marine sources [322]. Air trajectories also enabled early detection of diamond back moth infestations on the Canadian Prairies [323]. Different microorganisms have been detected in dust storms affecting Iran [324]. Dispersion patterns of the adult wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, were studied at the Hebei province, China, and showed that male midges mated before dispersal [325]. Cattle and insects in northern Australia were infested by viruses introduced via windborne dispersal of Culicoides whose spatial extent of the source across Indonesia, Timor-Leste, and Papua New Guinea and arrival regions were suggested [326]. Transport of infected Culicoides imicola from southern to northern Spain was investigated due to the expansion of the bluetongue disease of ruminants [327].

7. Conclusions

Most of the papers reviewed in this study have used air trajectories as an ancillary technique, but not as the central part of the research.

Backward trajectories are the most commonly calculated type, the HYSPLIT being the most widely used model and particulate matter being the kind of pollutant most frequently investigated.

Geographical distribution of applications has focused on Asia, especially on rapidly developing countries such as China whose pollution impact may be observed on surrounding countries.

Air trajectories show that emissions from distant sources may cross boundaries and impact remote unpolluted areas or places where emission control strategies have been implemented or where the use of certain substances has been restricted or even banned.

Urban and industrial areas are not the only sources of pollution since many widespread crops in Asia may release noticeable concentrations of different pollutants into the atmosphere.

Injections during transport may considerably change features of air mass, which may impact remote places where potentially dangerous substances have been observed.

Dry and perhaps polluted air masses from the continents are loaded with moisture and cleaned when they travel over the ocean. However, marine aerosols may be dragged to the continent where they are mixed with polluted air modifying the properties of local parcels.

The influence of air masses from or over central Africa and the long-range transport of microorganisms require further investigation.

Finally, although trajectory calculation is a powerful tool, it should be used in conjunction with other procedures. Therefore, research focusing on air trajectories remains an open field, and extending it is recommended in order to gain further insights into the atmospheric pathways affecting the regions under analysis and their influence on living beings. The underlying factors for the air mass trajectories are basically linked to the synoptic wind regime, wind flow, and inversions. This review has shown the multiple applications of air trajectories on various issues depending on the Lagrangian or Eulerian perspectives of the flow field.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

The financial support of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Spain, ERDF funds, and the Regional Government of Castile and Leon is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also acknowledge the financial support from UGC India and DST, New Delhi.

References

  1. A. Veira, P. L. Jackson, B. Ainslie, and D. Fudge, “Assessment of background particulate matter concentrations in small cities and rural locations-Prince George, Canada,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 773–787, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. C. Hsu, C. Li, N. A. Krotkov, Q. Liang, K. Yang, and S.-C. Tsay, “Rapid transpacific transport in autumn observed by the A-train satellites,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 6, Article ID D06312, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Kolios and H. Feidas, “A warm season climatology of mesoscale convective systems in the Mediterranean basin using satellite data,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 29–42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Draxler, B. Stunder, G. Rolph, A. Stein, and A. Taylor, “Hysplit4 user Guide,” 2013, http://www.arl.noaa.gov/documents/reports/hysplit_user_guide.pdf.
  5. A. Stohl, “The FLEXTRA trajectory model version 3.0, user's guide,” in Lehrstuhl für Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung, p. 41, University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Zeng, T. Matsunaga, and H. Mukai, “METEX—a flexible tool for air trajectory calculation,” Environmental Modelling and Software, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 607–608, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Wang, T. W. Sammis, D. R. Miller et al., “Simulated regional pm10 dispersion from agricultural tilling operations using Hysplit,” Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1659–1667, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Hegarty, R. R. Draxler, A. F. Stein et al., “Evaluation of lagrangian particle dispersion models with measurements from controlled tracer releases,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2623–2637, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. A. Boller, S. A. Braun, J. Miles, and D. H. Laidlaw, “Application of uncertainty visualization methods to meteorological trajectories,” Earth Science Informatics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 119–126, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Siddique and J. J. Sloan, “HYSPLIT4: a useful tool in performing air mass analysis,” Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 376–390, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Argyropoulos, T. Grigoratos, M. Voutsinas, and C. Samara, “Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 7214–7230, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. I. Borbély-Kiss, E. Koltay, G. Y. Szabó, L. Bozó, and K. Tar, “Composition and sources of urban and rural atmospheric aerosol in eastern Hungary,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 369–391, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Li, X. Huang, L. Zhu et al., “Analysis of the transport pathways and potential sources of PM10 in Shanghai based on three methods,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 414, pp. 525–534, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Kassomenos, S. Vardoulakis, R. Borge, J. Lumbreras, C. Papaloukas, and S. Karakitsios, “Comparison of statistical clustering techniques for the classification of modelled atmospheric trajectories,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. J. Allwine and C. D. Whiteman, “Single-station integral measures of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 713–721, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. N. Westgate and F. Wania, “On the construction, comparison, and variability of airsheds for interpreting semivolatile organic compounds in passively sampled air,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 20, pp. 8850–8857, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. C. Henry, A. Vette, G. Norris, R. Vedantham, S. Kimbrough, and R. C. Shores, “Separating the air quality impact of a major highway and nearby sources by nonparametric trajectory analysis,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 24, pp. 10471–10476, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, and R. R. Draxler, “TrajStat: GIS-based software that uses various trajectory statistical analysis methods to identify potential sources from long-term air pollution measurement data,” Environmental Modelling and Software, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 938–939, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. van Pinxteren, E. Brüggemann, T. Gnauk, K. Müller, C. Thiel, and H. Herrmann, “A GIS based approach to back trajectory analysis for the source apportionment of aerosol constituents and its first application,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Mijling and R. J. Van Der A, “Using daily satellite observations to estimate emissions of short-lived air pollutants on a mesoscopic scale,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 17, Article ID D17302, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Bozlaker, J. M. Prospero, M. P. Fraser, and S. Chellam, “Quantifying the contribution of long-range Saharan dust transport on particulate matter concentrations in Houston, Texas, using detailed elemental analysis,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 18, pp. 10179–10187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Freitag, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell et al., “Combining airborne gas and aerosol measurements with HYSPLIT: a visualization tool for simultaneous evaluation of air mass history and back trajectory consistency,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 107–128, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Baumann and A. Stohl, “Validation of a long-range trajectory model using gas balloon tracks from the gordon bennett cup 95,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 711–720, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Stohl, L. Haimberger, M. P. Scheele, and H. Wernli, “An intercomparison of results from three trajectory models,” Meteorological Applications, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 127–135, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. B. White, C. J. Senff, A. N. Keane et al., “A wind profiler trajectory tool for air quality transport applications,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 111, no. 23, Article ID D23S23, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. F. Gozzo and R. P. da Rocha, “Air–sea interaction processes influencing the development of a Shapiro-Keyser type cyclone over the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 170, no. 5, pp. 917–934, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Thorsteinsson, J. E. Kristjánsson, B. Røsting, V. Erlingsson, and G. F. Ulfarsson, “A diagnostic study of the flateyri avalanche cyclone, 24–26 October 1995, using potential vorticity inversion,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1072–1088, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. S. R. Froude, “TIGGE: comparison of the prediction of northern hemisphere extratropical cyclones by different ensemble prediction systems,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 819–836, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. M. Cordeira and L. F. Bosart, “Cyclone interactions and evolutions during the “Perfect Storms” of late October and early November 1991,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 139, no. 6, pp. 1683–1707, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Fita, R. Romero, A. Luque, and C. Ramis, “Effects of assimilating precipitation zones derived from satellite and lightning data on numerical simulations of tropical-like Mediterranean storms,” Annales Geophysicae, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 3297–3319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. M. Miglietta, A. Moscatello, D. Conte, G. Mannarini, G. Lacorata, and R. Rotunno, “Numerical analysis of a Mediterranean “hurricane” over south-eastern Italy: sensitivity experiments to sea surface temperature,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 101, no. 1-2, pp. 412–426, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Y. Chan, Y. S. Li, J. H. Tang et al., “An analysis on abnormally low ozone in the upper troposphere over subtropical East Asia in spring 2004,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 3556–3564, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. A. Garde, A. B. Pezza, and J. A. T. Bye, “Tropical transition of the 2001 Australian Duck,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 2038–2057, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. A. Knox, J. A. Rackley, A. W. Black et al., “Tornado debris characteristics and trajectories during the 27 April 2011 super outbreak as determined using social media data,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 1371–1380, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. A. Graf, M. Sprenger, and R. W. Moore, “Central European tornado environments as viewed from a potential vorticity and Lagrangian perspective,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 101, no. 1-2, pp. 31–45, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. C. Banacos and M. L. Ekster, “The association of the elevated mixed layer with significant severe weather events in the northeastern United States,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1082–1102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Raman, A. F. Arellano Jr., and J. J. Brost, “Revisiting haboobs in the southwestern United States: an observational case study of the 5 July 2011 Phoenix dust storm,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 89, pp. 179–188, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Evans, M. L. Weisman, and L. F. Bosart, “Development of an intense, warm-core mesoscale vortex associated with the 8 may 2009 ‘Super Derecho’ convective event,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 1218–1240, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. M. Hondula, L. Sitka, R. E. Davis et al., “A back-trajectory and air mass climatology for the Northern Shenandoah Valley, USA,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 569–581, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Soltani, C. A. Babu, and A. Mofidi, “Meteorological aspects of an abnormal cooling event over Iran in April 2009,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 124, no. 1-2, pp. 47–65, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. V. Müller and T. Ambrizzi, “Rossby wave propagation tracks in southern hemisphere mean basic flows associated to generalized frosts over southern South America,” Atmósfera, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 25–35, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. W. Bergman, F. Fierli, E. J. Jensen, S. Honomichl, and L. L. Pan, “Boundary layer sources for the asian anticyclone: regional contributions to a vertical conduit,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 2560–2575, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Wilson, M. J. Manton, and S. T. Siems, “Relationship between rainfall and weather regimes in south-eastern Queensland, Australia,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 979–991, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. R. Markle, N. A. N. Bertler, K. E. Sinclair, and S. B. Sneed, “Synoptic variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, as seen from back-trajectory modeling and ice core analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 2, Article ID D02113, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Harpaz, B. Ziv, H. Saaroni, and E. Beja, “Extreme summer temperatures in the East Mediterranean—dynamical analysis,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 849–862, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y.-M. Kodama, Y. Tomiya, and S. Asano, “Air mass transformation along trajectories of airflow and its relation to vertical structures of the maritime atmosphere and clouds in Yamase events,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 665–685, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. I. Levy, U. Dayan, and Y. Mahrer, “A five-year study of coastal recirculation and its effect on air pollutants over the East Mediterranean region,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 113, no. 16, Article ID D16121, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Seagram, D. Steyn, and B. Ainslie, “Modelled recirculation of pollutants during ozone episodes in the Lower Fraser Valley, B. C,” NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, vol. 137, pp. 291–295, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  49. K. Osada, M. Kido, H. Iida et al., “Seasonal variation of free tropospheric aerosol particles at Mt. Tateyama, central Japan,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 108, no. 23, pp. ACE 35-1–ACE 35-9, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. Trapero, J. Bech, F. Duffourg, P. Esteban, and J. Lorente, “Mesoscale numerical analysis of the historical November 1982 heavy precipitation event over Andorra (Eastern Pyrenees),” Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 2969–2990, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. M. Innes, J. E. Kristjánsson, H. Schyberg, and B. Røsting, “An assessment of a Greenland lee cyclone during the Greenland Flow Distortion experiment: an observational approach,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 135, no. 645, pp. 1968–1985, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. Lentini, P. Cristofanelli, R. Duchi et al., “Mount Rwenzori (4750 M A.S.L., Uganda): meteorological characterization and air-mass transport analysis,” Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 183–193, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. L. Kaplan, C. S. Adaniya, P. J. Marzette, K. C. King, S. J. Underwood, and J. M. Lewis, “The role of upstream midtropospheric circulations in the Sierra Nevada enabling leeside (spillover) precipitation. Part II: a secondary atmospheric river accompanying a midlevel jet,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1327–1354, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Rubin, N. Paldor, and B. Ziv, “On the dominance of changes in planetary angular momentum in large scale extra-tropical flows,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 23, Article ID L23814, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. K. A. Mckinnon, A. R. Stine, and P. Huybers, “The spatial structure of the annual cycle in surface temperature: amplitude, phase, and lagrangian history,” Journal of Climate, vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 7852–7862, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. Fedorova, V. Levit, A. O. da Silva, and D. M. B. dos Santos, “Low visibility formation and forecasting on the northern coast of Brazil,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 170, no. 4, pp. 689–709, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. B. Pollina, B. A. Colle, and J. J. Charney, “Climatology and meteorological evolution of major wildfire events over the Northeast United States,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 175–193, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. Chen, X.-D. Xu, S. Yang, and W. Zhang, “On the temporal and spatial structure of troposphere-to-stratosphere transport in the lowermost stratosphere over the Asian monsoon region during boreal summer,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1305–1317, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C.-H. Shi, H. Li, B. Zheng, D. Guo, and R.-Q. Liu, “Stratosphere-troposphere exchange corresponding to a deep convection in warm sector and abnormal subtropical front induced by a cutoff low over East Asia,” Chinese Journal of Geophysics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. P. Knippertz and H. Wernli, “A lagrangian climatology of tropical moisture exports to the northern hemispheric extratropics,” Journal of Climate, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 987–1003, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Knippertz, H. Wernli, and G. Gläser, “A global climatology of tropical moisture exports,” Journal of Climate, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 3031–3045, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Schiller, J.-U. Groob, P. Konopka, F. Plöger, F. H. S. dos Santos, and N. Spelten, “Hydration and dehydration at the tropical tropopause,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, no. 24, pp. 9647–9660, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Pfahl and N. Niedermann, “Daily covariations in near-surface relative humidity and temperature over the ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 116, no. 19, Article ID D19104, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Roberge, J. R. Gyakum, and E. H. Atallah, “Analysis of intense poleward water vapor transports into high latitudes of Western North America,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1732–1747, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Wei, P. A. Dirmeyer, M. G. Bosilovich, and R. Wu, “Water vapor sources for Yangtze River Valley rainfall: climatology, variability, and implications for rainfall forecasting,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 5, Article ID D05126, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. B. Chen, X.-D. Xu, S. Yang, and W. Zhang, “On the origin and destination of atmospheric moisture and air mass over the Tibetan Plateau,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 423–435, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. B. R. Lintner, C. E. Holloway, and J. D. Neelin, “Column water vapor statistics and their relationship to deep convection, vertical and horizontal circulation, and moisture structure at Nauru,” Journal of Climate, vol. 24, no. 20, pp. 5454–5466, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. H. Chubb, S. T. Siems, and M. J. Manton, “On the decline of wintertime precipitation in the Snowy Mountains of Southeastern Australia,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1483–1497, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Drumond, R. Nieto, L. Gimeno, S. M. Vicente-Serrano, J. I. López-Moreno, and E. Morán-Tejeda, “Characterization of the atmospheric component of the winter hydrological cycle in the Galicia/North Portugal Euro-region: a Lagrangian approach,” Climate Research, vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 193–201, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, J. A. Adame, J. P. Bolívar, and B. A. de la Morena, “Vertical behaviour and meteorological properties of air masses in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (1997–2007),” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 119, no. 3-4, pp. 163–175, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. P. Ricaud, F. Carminati, J.-L. Attie et al., “Quality assessment of the first measurements of tropospheric water vapor and temperature by the HAMSTRAD radiometer over concordia station, antarctica,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 3217–3239, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. Feingold, W. L. Eberhard, D. E. Veron, and M. Previdi, “First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, no. 6, p. 1287, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  73. G. S. Mauger and J. R. Norris, “Assessing the impact of meteorological history on subtropical cloud fraction,” Journal of Climate, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 2926–2940, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. Bennartz, J. Fan, J. Rausch, L. R. Leung, and A. K. Heidinger, “Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 38, no. 9, Article ID L09704, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. W. Su, N. G. Loeb, K.-M. Xu, G. L. Schuster, and Z. A. Eitzen, “An estimate of aerosol indirect effect from satellite measurements with concurrent meteorological analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. 18, Article ID D18219, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Shi, J. Yang, M. Qiu, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Z. Li, “Analysis of an extremely dense regional fog event in Eastern China using a mesoscale model,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 428–440, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. T. Kim Oanh and K. Leelasakultum, “Analysis of meteorology and emission in haze episode prevalence over mountain-bounded region for early warning,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 11, pp. 2261–2271, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. L. Stith, C. H. Twohy, P. J. Demott et al., “Observations of ice nuclei and heterogeneous freezing in a Western Pacific extratropical storm,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, no. 13, pp. 6229–6243, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts et al., “Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds—part 2: nucleation of ice on synoptic scales,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 21, pp. 10769–10785, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. I. Tošić and M. Unkašević, “Extreme daily precipitation in Belgrade and their links with the prevailing directions of the air trajectories,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 111, no. 1-2, pp. 97–107, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. Kolendowicz, E. Bednorz, B. Walna, and I. Kurzyca, “Episodes of extreme rainwater pollution and its relationship with synoptic situation (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland),” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 89–105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. Bednorz, “Synoptic conditions of heavy snowfalls in Europe,” Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 67–78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. Durašković, I. Tošić, M. Unkašević, L. Ignjatović, and D. Dordević, “The dominant contribution on wet deposition of water-soluble main ions in the South-Eastern Adriatic region,” Central European Journal of Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1301–1309, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. R. White, R. S. Cerveny, and R. C. Balling Jr., “Seasonality in European red dust/‘blood’ rain events,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 471–476, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. L. B. Perry, A. Seimon, and G. M. Kelly, “Precipitation delivery in the tropical high Andes of Southern Peru: new findings and paleoclimatic implications,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 197–215, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. M. Kelly, L. B. Perry, B. F. Taubman, and P. T. Soulé, “Synoptic classification of 2009-2010 precipitation events in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA,” Climate Research, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. L. B. Perry, C. E. Konrad, and T. W. Schmidlin, “Antecedent upstream air trajectories associated with northwest flow snowfall in the Southern Appalachians,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 334–352, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. M. Milrad, E. H. Atallah, and J. R. Gyakum, “A diagnostic examination of consecutive extreme cool-season precipitation events at St. John's, Newfoundland, in December 2008,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 997–1026, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. M. Milrad, E. H. Atallah, and J. R. Gyakum, “Synoptic typing of extreme cool-season precipitation events at St. John's, Newfoundland, 1979–2005,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 562–586, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. Bershaw, S. M. Penny, and C. N. Garzione, “Stable isotopes of modern water across the Himalaya and eastern Tibetan Plateau: implications for estimates of paleoelevation and paleoclimate,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. D2, Article ID D02110, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. F. Feng, Z. Li, M. Zhang, S. Jin, and Z. Dong, “Deuterium and oxygen 18 in precipitation and atmospheric moisture in the upper Urumqi River Basin, Eastern Tianshan Mountains,” Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 1199–1209, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. Liu, X. Song, G. Fu, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and D. Han, “Precipitation isotope characteristics and climatic controls at a continental and an island site in Northeast Asia,” Climate Research, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 29–44, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. Satyanarayana, L. A. K. Reddy, M. J. Kulshrestha, R. N. Rao, and U. C. Kulshrestha, “Chemical composition of rain water and influence of airmass trajectories at a rural site in an ecological sensitive area of Western Ghats (India),” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 101–116, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. S. M. Santos, E. B. H. Santos, and A. C. Duarte, “Seasonal and air mass trajectory effects on dissolved organic matter of bulk deposition at a coastal town in South-western Europe,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 227–237, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. K. E. Altieri, M. G. Hastings, A. R. Gobel, A. J. Peters, and D. M. Sigman, “Isotopic composition of rainwater nitrate at Bermuda: the influence of air mass source and chemistry in the marine boundary layer,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 19, pp. 11304–11316, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. L. Hoinaski, D. Franco, R. Haas, R. F. Martins, and H. D. M. Lisboa, “Investigation of rainwater contamination sources in the Southern part of Brazil,” Environmental Technology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 868–881, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. H. Wu, X. Zhang, L. Xiaoyan, G. Li, and Y. Huang, “Seasonal variations of deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopes and their response to moisture source for precipitation events in the subtropical monsoon region,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 90–102, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. J. Crawford, C. E. Hughes, and S. D. Parkes, “Is the isotopic composition of event based precipitation driven by moisture source or synoptic scale weather in the Sydney Basin, Australia?” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 507, pp. 213–226, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. Berkelhammer, L. Stott, K. Yoshimura, K. Johnson, and A. Sinha, “Synoptic and mesoscale controls on the isotopic composition of precipitation in the western United States,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 433–454, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. W. Wilson, C. A. Knight, S. A. Tessendorf, and C. Weeks, “Polarimetric radar analysis of raindrop size variability in maritime and continental clouds,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 1970–1980, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J.-E. Kim, Y.-J. Han, P.-R. Kim, and T. M. Holsen, “Factors influencing atmospheric wet deposition of trace elements in rural Korea,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 116, pp. 185–194, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. L. Granat, J. E. Engström, S. Praveen, and H. Rodhe, “Light absorbing material (soot) in rainwater and in aerosol particles in the Maldives,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. D16, Article ID D16307, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. B. Walna, I. Kurzyca, E. Bednorz, and L. Kolendowicz, “Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland),” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 185, no. 7, pp. 5497–5514, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. K. Osada, M. Kido, C. Nishita et al., “Temporal variation of water-soluble ions of free tropospheric aerosol particles over central Japan,” Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 742–754, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. S. Krupa and M. Nosal, “Rainfall composition in Minnesota: integrating the chemistry, synoptic meteorology and numerical modelling,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 477–483, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Ma, E. Sverko, Y. Su, J. Zhang, and H. Gao, “Uptake and mobilization of organic chemicals with clouds: evidence from a hail sample,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 17, pp. 9715–9721, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. Katarzyna, “The influence of atmospheric circulation on the occurrence of hail in the North German Lowlands,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 112, no. 3-4, pp. 363–373, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. T. Kuramoto, S. K. Shah, M. Tanaka, and K. Suzuki, “Chemical characteristics of snowpack due to differences in snowfall type in Japan Alps,” Bulletin of Glaciological Research, vol. 26, pp. 15–21, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  109. H. Jiang, Y. Yin, L. Yang, S. Yang, H. Su, and K. Chen, “The characteristics of atmospheric ice nuclei measured at different altitudes in the Huangshan Mountains in Southeast China,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 396–406, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. J. Xu, Q. Zhang, X. Li et al., “Dissolved organic matter and inorganic ions in a central himalayan glacier—insights into chemical composition and atmospheric sources,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 6181–6188, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. Ming, H. Cachier, C. Xiao et al., “Black carbon record based on a shallow Himalayan ice core and its climatic implications,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1343–1352, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. S. Kutuzov, M. Shahgedanova, V. Mikhalenko, P. Ginot, I. Lavrentiev, and S. Kemp, “High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009–2012 using snow pit and firn core records,” The Cryosphere, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1481–1498, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. A. Hodson, T. J. Roberts, A.-C. Engvall, K. Holmén, and P. Mumford, “Glacier ecosystem response to episodic nitrogen enrichment in Svalbard, European High Arctic,” Biogeochemistry, vol. 98, no. 1–3, pp. 171–184, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. E. R. Thomas and T. J. Bracegirdle, “Improving ice core interpretation using in situ and reanalysis data,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 114, no. D20, Article ID D20116, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J. D. W. Kahl, J. A. Galbraith, and D. A. Martinez, “Decadal-scale variability in long-range atmospheric transport to the Summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 481–484, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. D. A. Dixon, P. A. Mayewski, I. D. Goodwin et al., “An ice-core proxy for northerly air mass incursions into West Antarctica,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1455–1465, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. D. Asaf, D. Pedersen, M. Peleg, V. Matveev, and M. Luria, “Evaluation of background levels of air pollutants over Israel,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 36, pp. 8453–8463, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. H. Toros, G. Geertsema, and G. Cats, “Evaluation of the HIRLAM and HARMONIE numerical weather prediction models during an air pollution episode over Greater İstanbul Area,” Clean—Soil, Air, Water, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 863–870, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. A. Kaiser, “Origin of polluted air masses in the Alps. An overview and first results for MONARPOP,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 157, no. 12, pp. 3232–3237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. J. A. Adame, A. Notario, F. Villanueva, and J. Albaladejo, “Application of cluster analysis to surface ozone, NO2 and SO2 daily patterns in an industrial area in Central-Southern Spain measured with a DOAS system,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 429, pp. 281–291, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. D. V. Ionov and A. V. Poberovskii, “Nitrogen dioxide in the air basin of St. Petersburg: remote measurements and numerical simulation,” Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Ocean Physics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 373–383, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. A. Datta, T. Saud, A. Goel et al., “Variation of ambient SO2 over Delhi,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 2-3, pp. 127–143, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. L. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Sun, and Y. Li, “Using synoptic classification and trajectory analysis to assess air quality during the winter heating period in Ürümqi, China,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 307–319, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. P. D. Hien, P. D. Loc, and N. V. Dao, “Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 23, pp. 5063–5068, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. E. Austin, B. Coull, D. Thomas, and P. Koutrakis, “A framework for identifying distinct multipollutant profiles in air pollution data,” Environment International, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 112–121, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. J. N. Westgate, U. M. Sofowote, P. Roach et al., “In search of potential source regions of semi-volatile organic contaminants in air in the Yukon Territory, Canada from 2007 to 2009 using hybrid receptor models,” Environmental Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 22–33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. D. Ceburnis, S. G. Jennings, and C. D. O'Dowd, “Intercontinental and regional transport of air pollution monitored at Mace Head, Ireland and over Europe,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1527, pp. 591–594, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  128. L. Miller, S. Farhana, and X. Xu, “Trans-boundary air pollution in Windsor, Ontario (Canada),” Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 585–594, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. M. Jähn, R. Wolke, and B. Sändig, “Detection of odor sources and high concentrations of pollutants in the Ore Mountains by modeling of air mass paths,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 213–220, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. H. S. Oh, Y. S. Ghim, J. Y. Kim, and Y.-S. Chang, “Determination of upwind and downwind areas of Seoul, Korea using trajectory analysis,” Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 89–96, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. D. Koracin, R. Vellore, D. H. Lowenthal et al., “Regional source identification using lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion and HYSPLIT backward-trajectory models,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 660–672, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. A. M. MacDonald, K. G. Anlauf, W. R. Leaitch, E. Chan, and D. W. Tarasick, “Interannual variability of ozone and carbon monoxide at the Whistler high elevation site: 2002–2006,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 11431–11446, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. A. Yerramilli, V. B. Dodla, S. Desamsetti et al., “Air quality modeling for the urban Jackson, Mississippi region using a high resolution WRF/Chem model,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 2470–2490, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. F. Ngan and D. Byun, “Classification of weather patterns and associated trajectories of high-ozone episodes in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area during the 2005/06 TexAQS-II,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 485–499, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. D. A. Jaffe, N. Wigder, N. Downey, G. Pfister, A. Boynard, and S. B. Reid, “Impact of wildfires on ozone exceptional events in the Western U.S,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 19, pp. 11065–11072, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. Hegarty, H. Mao, and R. Talbot, “Synoptic influences on springtime tropospheric O3 and CO over the North American export region observed by TES,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 3755–3776, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. R. San José, A. Stohl, K. Karatzas, T. Bohler, P. James, and J. L. Pérez, “A modelling study of an extraordinary night time ozone episode over Madrid domain,” Environmental Modelling and Software, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 587–593, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. M. Bencardino, F. Sprovieri, F. Cofone, and N. Pirrone, “Variability of atmospheric aerosol and ozone concentrations at marine, urban, and high-altitude monitoring stations in Southern Italy during the 2007 summer Saharan dust outbreaks and wildfire episodes,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 952–967, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. J. Cui, S. Pandey Deolal, M. Sprenger et al., “Free tropospheric ozone changes over Europe as observed at Jungfraujoch (1990–2008): an analysis based on backward trajectories,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 116, no. D10, Article ID D10304, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. S. D. Glavas and E. Sazakli, “Ozone long-range transport in the Balkans,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1615–1626, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. K. C. Tan, H. S. Lim, and M. Z. M. Jafri, “Analysis of total column ozone in Peninsular Malaysia retrieved from SCIAMACHY,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 42–51, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. V. S. Yerramsetti, N. G. Navlur, V. Rapolu et al., “Role of nitrogen oxides, black carbon, and meteorological parameters on the variation of surface ozone levels at a tropical urban site—Hyderabad, India,” Clean—Soil, Air, Water, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 215–225, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. K. K. Reddy, M. Naja, N. Ojha, P. Mahesh, and S. Lal, “Influences of the boundary layer evolution on surface ozone variations at a tropical rural site in India,” Journal of Earth System Science, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 911–922, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. D. Ghosh, S. Lal, and U. Sarkar, “High nocturnal ozone levels at a surface site in Kolkata, India: trade-off between meteorology and specific nocturnal chemistry,” Urban Climate, vol. 5, pp. 82–103, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. T. Nishanth, M. K. Satheesh Kumar, and K. T. Valsaraj, “Variations in surface ozone and NOx at Kannur: a tropical, coastal site in India,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 101–126, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. L. M. David, I. A. Girach, and P. R. Nair, “Distribution of ozone and its precursors over Bay of Bengal during winter 2009: role of meteorology,” Annales Geophysicae, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1613–1627, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. T. Nishanth, K. M. Praseed, M. K. S. Kumar, and K. T. Valsaraj, “Analysis of ground level O3 and NOx measured at Kannur, India,” Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, vol. 3, no. 1, article 111, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  148. P. K. Bhuyan, C. Bharali, B. Pathak, and G. Kalita, “The role of precursor gases and meteorology on temporal evolution of O3 at a tropical location in Northeast India,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 6696–6713, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. H. R. Cheng, S. M. Saunders, H. Guo, P. K. K. Louie, and F. Jiang, “Photochemical trajectory modeling of ozone concentrations in Hong Kong,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 180, pp. 101–110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. Y. Yin, H. Lu, W. Shan, and Y. Zheng, “Analysis of observed ozone episode in Urban Jinan, China,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 159–163, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. X. Wang, Z. Shen, J. Cao et al., “Characteristics of surface ozone at an urban site of Xi'an in Northwest China,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 116–126, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. M. S. Bourqui and P.-Y. Trépanier, “Descent of deep stratospheric intrusions during the IONS August 2006 campaign,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 115, no. 18, Article ID D18301, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  153. D. Akritidis, P. Zanis, I. Pytharoulis, A. Mavrakis, and T. Karacostas, “A deep stratospheric intrusion event down to the earth's surface of the megacity of Athens,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 9–18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. C. Strong, J. D. Fuentes, R. E. Davis, and J. W. Bottenheim, “Thermodynamic attributes of Arctic boundary layer ozone depletion,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 36, no. 15-16, pp. 2641–2652, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. I. Petropavlovskikh, E. Ray, S. M. Davis et al., “Lowozone bubbles observed in the tropical tropopause layer during the TC4 campaign in 2007,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. 17, Article ID D00J16, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  156. E. V. Fischer, D. A. Jaffe, D. R. Reidmiller, and L. Jaeglé, “Meteorological controls on observed peroxyacetyl nitrate at Mount Bachelor during the spring of 2008,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. 3, Article ID D03302, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. L. K. Xue, T. Wang, H. Guo et al., “Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of Western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 17, pp. 8551–8567, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. F. Zhang, L. X. Zhou, and L. Xu, “Temporal variation of atmospheric CH4 and the potential source regions at Waliguan, China,” Science China Earth Sciences, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 727–736, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. C.-H. Lin and L.-F. W. Chang, “Relative source contribution analysis using an air trajectory statistical approach,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 107, no. 21, p. 4583, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  160. H.-H. Tsai, Y.-F. Liu, C.-S. Yuan et al., “Vertical profile and spatial distribution of ozone and its precursors at the inland and offshore of an industrial city,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 911–922, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. S. Ferrarese, A. Longhetto, C. Cassardo et al., “A study of seasonal and yearly modulation of carbon dioxide sources and sinks, with a particular attention to the Boreal Atlantic Ocean,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 36, no. 35, pp. 5517–5526, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. I. A. Pérez, M. L. Sánchez, M. Á. García, and N. Pardo, “Spatial analysis of CO2 concentration in an unpolluted environment in Northern Spain,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 113, pp. 417–425, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. F. Artuso, P. Chamard, S. Piacentino et al., “Influence of transport and trends in atmospheric CO2 at Lampedusa,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 19, pp. 3044–3051, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. L. Riuttanen, M. Hulkkonen, M. Dal Maso, H. Junninen, and M. Kulmala, “Trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of fine particles, SO2, NOx and O3 to the SMEAR II station in Finland in 1996–2008,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 2153–2164, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. A. Donnelly, B. Broderick, and B. Misstear, “Relating background NO2 concentrations in air to air mass history using non-parametric regression methods: application at two background sites in Ireland,” Environmental Modeling and Assessment, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 363–373, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. H. Tanimoto, Y. Tohjima, H. Mukai, H. Nara, and S. Hashimoto, “Anomalous geographical gap in carbon monoxide mixing ratios over Hokkaido (Japan) in summer 2004,” Geochemical Journal, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. e23–e29, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. S. Fuhlbrügge, K. Krüger, B. Quack, E. Atlas, H. Hepach, and F. Ziska, “Impact of the marine atmospheric boundary layer conditions on VSLS abundances in the Eastern tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. 6345–6357, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. D. H. Lenschow, I. R. Paluch, A. R. Bandy, D. C. Thornton, D. R. Blake, and I. Simpson, “Use of a mixed-layer model to estimate dimethylsulfide flux and application to other trace gas fluxes,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 104, no. D13, pp. 16275–16295, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. C. V. Srinivas, R. Venkatesan, R. Baskaran, V. Rajagopal, and B. Venkatraman, “Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 61, pp. 66–84, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. N. Q. Long, Y. Truong, P. D. Hien et al., “Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 111, pp. 53–58, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. R. L. Lozano, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, J. A. Adame et al., “Radioactive impact of Fukushima accident on the Iberian Peninsula: evolution and plume previous pathway,” Environment International, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1259–1264, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. G. Lujaniene, S. Byčenkiene, P. P. Povinec, and M. Gera, “Radionuclides from the Fukushima accident in the air over Lithuania: measurement and modelling approaches,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 114, pp. 71–80, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. G. H. Hong, M. A. Herńandez-Ceballos, R. L. Lozano et al., “Radioactive impact in South Korea from the damaged nuclear reactors in Fukushima: evidence of long and short range transport,” Journal of Radiological Protection, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 397–411, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, G. H. Hong, R. L. Lozano et al., “Tracking the complete revolution of surface westerlies over Northern Hemisphere using radionuclides emitted from Fukushima,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 438, pp. 80–85, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. C. C. Wendel, L. K. Fifield, D. H. Oughton et al., “Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway,” Environment International, vol. 59, pp. 92–102, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. C. M. Wright, “Low-yield nuclear testing by North Korea in May 2010: assessing the evidence with atmospheric transport models and xenon activity calculations,” Science and Global Security, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 3–52, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. O. Connan, K. Smith, C. Organo, L. Solier, D. Maro, and D. Hébert, “Comparison of RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, ADMS atmospheric dispersion model outputs, using emergency response procedures, with 85Kr measurements made in the vicinity of nuclear reprocessing plant,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 124, pp. 266–277, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. Y. V. Dubasov, N. S. Okunev, and S. I. Malimonova, “Monitoring of Kr and Xe isotopes in air using liquid oxygen,” Radiochemistry, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 308–313, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. C. Dueñas, J. A. G. Orza, M. Cabello et al., “Air mass origin and its influence on radionuclide activities (7Be and 210Pb) in aerosol particles at a coastal site in the Western Mediterranean,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 101, no. 1-2, pp. 205–214, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. H. Jeong, M. Park, H. Jeong, W. Hwang, E. Kim, and M. Han, “Radiological risk assessment caused by RDD terrorism in an urban area,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 79, pp. 1–4, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. B. E. Moroz, H. L. Beck, A. Bouville, and S. L. Simon, “Predictions of dispersion and deposition of fallout from nuclear testing using the NOAA-HYSPLIT meteorological model,” Health Physics, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 252–269, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. N. Qin, X.-Z. Kong, Y. Zhu et al., “Distributions, sources, and backward trajectories of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at Lake Small Baiyangdian, Northern China,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 416321, 13 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. J.-H. Kang, S.-D. Choi, H. Park, S.-Y. Baek, S. Hong, and Y.-S. Chang, “Atmospheric deposition of persistent organic pollutants to the East Rongbuk Glacier in the Himalayas,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. W.-L. Ma, H. Qi, S. Baidron, L.-Y. Liu, M. Yang, and Y.-F. Li, “Implications for long-range atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lhasa, China,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 5525–5533, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. Z. Ling, D. Xu, S. Zou, S. Lee, and K. Ho, “Characterizing the gas-phase organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere over the Pearl River Delta Region,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 238–246, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. J. He, R. Balasubramanian, S. Karthikeyan, and U. M. Joshi, “Determination of semi-volatile organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere of Singapore using accelerated solvent extraction,” Chemosphere, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 640–648, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  187. P. Chakraborty, G. Zhang, S. Eckhardt et al., “Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 182, pp. 283–290, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. J.-H. Kang, M.-H. Son, S. D. Hur et al., “Deposition of organochlorine pesticides into the surface snow of East Antarctica,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 433, pp. 290–295, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. J. Paasivirta, S. Sinkkonen, V. Nikiforov et al., “Long-range atmospheric transport of three toxaphene congeners across Europe. Modeling by chained single-box FATEMOD program,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 191–205, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. S. C. Sofuoglu, A. Sofuoglu, T. M. Holsen, C. M. Alexander, and J. J. Pagano, “Atmospheric concentrations and potential sources of PCBs, PBDEs, and pesticides to Acadia National Park,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 177, pp. 116–124, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. W. D. Hafner and R. A. Hites, “Effects of wind and air trajectory directions on atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants near the Great Lakes,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 20, pp. 7817–7825, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. I. Cheng, L. Zhang, P. Blanchard et al., “Comparisons of mercury sources and atmospheric mercury processes between a coastal and inland site,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 2434–2443, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. Y. Jiang, J. V. Cizdziel, and D. Lu, “Temporal patterns of atmospheric mercury species in Northern Mississippi during 2011-2012: influence of sudden population swings,” Chemosphere, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1694–1700, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. X. Xu and U. S. Akhtar, “Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 15, pp. 7073–7083, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. M. T. Parsons, D. McLennan, M. Lapalme, C. Mooney, C. Watt, and R. Mintz, “Total gaseous mercury concentration measurements at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada,” Atmosphere, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 472–493, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. D. Müller, D. Wip, T. Warneke, C. D. Holmes, A. Dastoor, and J. Notholt, “Sources of atmospheric mercury in the tropics: continuous observations at a coastal site in Suriname,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, no. 16, pp. 7391–7397, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. L. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Niu, L. Yin, and Y. Chen, “Characterization of mercury in atmospheric particulate matter in the Southeast coastal cities of China,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 454–461, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. X. W. Fu, X. Feng, P. Liang et al., “Temporal trend and sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at Waliguan GAW station, Northwestern China,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1951–1964, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. M. L. I. Witt, N. Meheran, T. A. Mather, J. C. M. de Hoog, and D. M. Pyle, “Aerosol trace metals, particle morphology and total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere of Oxford, UK,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1524–1538, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. J. R. Graney and M. S. Landis, “Coupling meteorology, metal concentrations, and Pb isotopes for source attribution in archived precipitation samples,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 448, pp. 141–150, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. B. Chen, A. F. Stein, N. Castell et al., “Modeling and surface observations of arsenic dispersion from a large Cu-smelter in Southwestern Europe,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 49, pp. 114–122, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. P. S. Mahapatra, S. Ray, N. Das et al., “Urban air-quality assessment and source apportionment studies for Bhubaneshwar, Odisha,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 112, no. 1-2, pp. 243–251, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. J. H. Lee, Y. Yoshida, B. J. Turpin et al., “Identification of sources contributing to Mid-Atlantic regional aerosol,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1186–1205, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. D. M. Gaiero, L. Simonella, S. Gassó et al., “Ground/satellite observations and atmospheric modeling of dust storms originating in the high Puna-Altiplano deserts (South America): implications for the interpretation of paleo-climatic archives,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 9, pp. 3817–3831, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. Y.-T. Guo, J. Zhang, S.-G. Wang, F. She, and X. Li, “Long-term characterization of major water-soluble inorganic ions in PM10 in coastal site on the Japan Sea,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 299–316, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. B.-K. Lee, H. K. Lee, and N.-Y. Jun, “Analysis of regional and temporal characteristics of PM10 during an Asian dust episode in Korea,” Chemosphere, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1106–1115, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. J. Li and K. Osada, “Water-insoluble particles in spring snow at Mt. Tateyama, Japan: characteristics of the shape factors and size distribution in relation with their origin and transportation,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. H.-Y. Jo and C.-H. Kim, “Identification of long-range transported haze phenomena and their meteorological features over Northeast Asia,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1318–1328, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. U. C. Dumka, R. K. Manchanda, P. R. Sinha, S. Sreenivasan, K. K. Moorthy, and S. Suresh Babu, “Temporal variability and radiative impact of black carbon aerosol over tropical urban station Hyderabad,” Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol. 105-106, pp. 81–90, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. B. A. Begum, P. K. Hopke, and A. Markwitz, “Air pollution by fine particulate matter in Bangladesh,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 75–86, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. G. Balakrishnaiah, K. Raghavendra Kumar, B. Suresh Kumar Reddy et al., “Anthropogenic impact on the temporal variations of black carbon and surface aerosol mass concentrations at a tropical semi-arid station in southeastern region of India,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1297–1308, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. N. I. H. Mustaffa, M. T. Latif, and M. M. Ali, “Distribution of surfactants in sea-surface microlayer and atmospheric aerosols at selected coastal area of Peninsular Malaysia,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1571, pp. 625–631, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  213. X. Zhang, Y. Huang, W. Zhu, and R. Rao, “Aerosol characteristics during summer haze episodes from different source regions over the coast city of North China Plain,” Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 122, pp. 180–193, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. Z. Cong, S. Kang, S. Gao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, and K. Kawamura, “Historical trends of atmospheric black carbon on Tibetan Plateau as reconstructed from a 150-year lake sediment record,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 2579–2586, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. H. Wang, Q. He, T. Liu et al., “Characteristics and source of black carbon aerosols at Akedala station, Central Asia,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 118, no. 3-4, pp. 189–197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. L. Gao, Y. Tian, C. Zhang et al., “Local and long-range transport influences on PM2.5 at a cities-cluster in Northern China, during summer 2008,” Particuology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 66–72, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. N. Liu, Y. Yu, J. He, and S. Zhao, “Integrated modeling of urban-scale pollutant transport: application in a semi-arid urban valley, Northwestern China,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 306–314, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. S. L. Kuzu, A. Saral, S. Demir, G. Summak, and G. Demir, “A detailed investigation of ambient aerosol composition and size distribution in an urban atmosphere,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 2556–2568, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. A. S. Likuku, G. K. Gaboutloeloe, and K. B. Mmolawa, “Determination and source apportionment of selected heavy metals in aerosol samples collected from sebele,” American Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 188–200, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. D. D. Cohen, E. Stelcer, A. Atanacio, and J. Crawford, “The application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 318, part A, pp. 113–118, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. D. Meloni, A. di Sarra, F. Monteleone, G. Pace, S. Piacentino, and D. M. Sferlazzo, “Seasonal transport patterns of intense Saharan dust events at the Mediterranean island of Lampedusa,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 134–148, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. T. Batmunkh, Y. J. Kim, J. S. Jung, K. Park, and B. Tumendemberel, “Chemical characteristics of fine particulate matters measured during severe winter haze events in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 659–670, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. S.-H. Park, A. S. Panicker, D.-I. Lee et al., “Characterization of chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols over anmyeon (South Korea), a super site under global atmosphere watch,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 67, no. 2-3, pp. 71–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. H. Choi and M. S. Lee, “Double compressions of atmospheric depth by geopotential tendency, vorticity, and atmospheric boundary layer affected abrupt high particulate matter concentrations at a coastal city for a Yellow Dust period in October,” Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2014, Article ID 756230, 13 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. B. P. Lee, Y. J. Li, J. Z. Yu, P. K. K. Louie, and C. K. Chan, “Physical and chemical characterization of ambient aerosol by HR-ToF-AMS at a suburban site in Hong Kong during springtime 2011,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 15, pp. 8625–8639, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. J.-Y. Yu, Y.-W. Wang, and C.-W. Chang, “Asian dust storm activity and its association with atmospheric circulation from 1995 to 2006,” Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 375–391, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. H. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Cao, Z. Zhang, and J. Liang, “A-Train satellite measurements of dust aerosol distributions over Northern China,” Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 122, pp. 170–179, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. F. Wang, D. S. Chen, S. Y. Cheng, J. B. Li, M. J. Li, and Z. H. Ren, “Identification of regional atmospheric PM10 transport pathways using HYSPLIT, MM5-CMAQ and synoptic pressure pattern analysis,” Environmental Modelling and Software, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 927–934, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. S. Zhao, J. Ming, C. Xiao, W. Sun, and X. Qin, “A preliminary study on measurements of black carbon in the atmosphere of Northwest Qilian Shan,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 152–159, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  230. S. Cheng, F. Wang, J. Li et al., “Application of trajectory clustering and source apportionment methods for investigating trans-boundary atmospheric PM10 pollution,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 333–342, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. S. Tiwari, D. M. Chate, P. Pragya, K. Ali, and D. S. Bisht, “Variations in mass of the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during the monsoon and the winter at New Delhi,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 20–29, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. T. Pachauri, V. Singla, A. Satsangi, A. Lakhani, and K. M. Kumari, “Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols with special reference to episodic events at Agra, India,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 128, pp. 98–110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. P. Sandeep, I. V. Saradhi, and G. G. Pandit, “Seasonal variation of black carbon in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at the tropical coastal city of Mumbai, India,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 605–610, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. N. Siddique, M. Jawad, and S. Waheed, “Work place air particulate monitoring of automobile workshops for public health and safety,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 295, no. 1, pp. 179–190, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. K. Ashrafi, M. Shafiepour-Motlagh, A. Aslemand, and S. Ghader, “Dust storm simulation over Iran using HYSPLIT,” Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, article 9, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  236. D. D. Cohen, J. Crawford, E. Stelcer, and A. Atanacio, “A new approach to the combination of IBA techniques and wind back trajectory data to determine source contributions to long range transport of fine particle air pollution,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 273, pp. 186–188, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  237. T. Hussein, B. Mølgaard, H. Hannuniemi et al., “Fingerprints of the urban particle number size distribution in Helsinki, Finland: local versus regional characteristics,” Boreal Environment Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. S. Squizzato, M. Masiol, E. Innocente, E. Pecorari, G. Rampazzo, and B. Pavoni, “A procedure to assess local and long-range transport contributions to PM2.5 and secondary inorganic aerosol,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 46, pp. 64–76, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. J. Hladil, L. Strnad, M. Šálek et al., “An anomalous atmospheric dust deposition event over Central Europe, 24 March 2007, and fingerprinting of the SE Ukrainian source,” Bulletin of Geosciences, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 175–206, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. Z. Mijić, A. Stojić, M. Perišić, S. Rajšić, and M. Tasić, “Receptor modeling studies for the characterization of PM10 pollution sources in Belgrade,” Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 623–634, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  241. F. Sprovieri, M. Bencardino, F. Cofone, and N. Pirrone, “Chemical composition of aerosol size fractions at a coastal site in southwestern Italy: seasonal variability and transport influence,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 941–951, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. A. Riccio, E. Chianese, G. Agrillo, C. Esposito, L. Ferrara, and G. Tirimberio, “Source apportion of atmospheric particulate matter: a joint Eulerian/Lagrangian approach,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 13160–13168, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. M. Manigrasso, A. Febo, F. Guglielmi, V. Ciambottini, and P. Avino, “Relevance of aerosol size spectrum analysis as support to qualitative source apportionment studies,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 170, pp. 43–51, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. M. Amodio, E. Andriani, G. de Gennaro, A. D. Loiotile, A. Di Gilio, and M. C. Placentino, “An integrated approach to identify the origin of PM10 exceedances,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 3132–3141, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. A. Yerramilli, V. B. R. Dodla, V. S. Challa et al., “An integrated WRF/HYSPLIT modeling approach for the assessment of PM2.5 source regions over the Mississippi Gulf Coast region,” Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 401–412, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. D. H. Lowenthal, J. G. Watson, D. Koracin et al., “Evaluation of regional-scale receptor modeling,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 26–42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  247. H. Jorquera and F. Barraza, “Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in a desert region in northern Chile,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 444, pp. 327–335, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. D. G. Kaskaoutis, P. T. Nastos, P. G. Kosmopoulos, and H. D. Kambezidis, “Characterising the long-range transport mechanisms of different aerosol types over Athens, Greece during 2000–2005,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1249–1270, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. K. Osada, K. Hara, M. Wada, T. Yamanouchi, and K. Matsunaga, “Lower tropospheric vertical distribution of aerosol particles over Syowa Station, Antarctica from spring to summer 2004,” Polar Meteorology and Glaciology, no. 20, pp. 16–27, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. M. Zhang, J. Chen, X. Chen et al., “Urban aerosol characteristics during the world expo 2010 in Shanghai,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36–48, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  251. G. U. Kang and J. H. Lee, “Comparison of PM2.5 and PM10 in a suburban area in Korea during April, 2003,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, vol. 5, no. 3–6, pp. 71–87, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  252. L. A. K. Reddy, U. C. Kulshrestha, J. Satyanarayana, M. J. Kulshrestha, and K. K. Moorthy, “Chemical characteristics of PM10 aerosols and airmass trajectories over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during ICARB,” Journal of Earth System Science, vol. 117, supplement 1, pp. 345–352, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  253. P. Pokorná, J. Hovorka, J. Kroužek, and P. K. Hopke, “Particulate matter source apportionment in a village situated in industrial region of Central Europe,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 1412–1421, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  254. S. M. Almeida, A. I. Silva, M. C. Freitas, H. M. Dzung, A. Caseiro, and C. A. Pio, “Impact of maritime air mass trajectories on the Western European coast urban aerosol,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, vol. 76, no. 4-5, pp. 252–262, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  255. A. S. Wozniak, R. U. Shelley, R. L. Sleighter et al., “Relationships among aerosol water soluble organic matter, iron and aluminum in European, North African, and Marine air masses from the 2010 US GEOTRACES cruise,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 154, pp. 24–33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  256. B. U. Temisanren and A. I. Igbafe, “Modelling the transport and dispersion of atmospheric aerosols over warri area of the Niger Delta subregion of Nigeria,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 824, pp. 643–649, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  257. H. Jorquera and F. Barraza, “Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in Santiago, Chile: 1999 and 2004 results,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 435-436, pp. 418–429, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  258. C.-J. Ma, K.-H. Kim, S.-B. Choi, M. Kasahara, and S. Tohno, “An orchestrated attempt to determine the chemical properties of Asian dust particles by PIXE and XRF techniques,” Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 189–197, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  259. J. Kang, M.-S. Choi, H.-I. Yi, K.-S. Jeong, J.-S. Chae, and C.-S. Cheong, “Elemental composition of different air masses over Jeju Island, South Korea,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 122, pp. 150–164, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  260. K. Tørseth, J. E. Hanssen, and A. Semb, “Temporal and spatial variations of airborne Mg, Cl, Na, Ca and K in rural areas of Norway,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 234, no. 1–3, pp. 75–85, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  261. P. Xian, J. S. Reid, S. A. Atwood et al., “Smoke aerosol transport patterns over the Maritime Continent,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 122, pp. 469–485, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  262. Y. Han, Y. Iwamoto, T. Nakayama, K. Kawamura, T. Hussein, and M. Mochida, “Observation of new particle formation over a mid-latitude forest facing the North Pacific,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 64, pp. 77–84, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  263. K. Huang, G. Zhuang, Y. Lin et al., “Typical types and formation mechanisms of haze in an Eastern Asia megacity, Shanghai,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 105–124, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  264. I. Borbély-Kiss, Á. Z. Kiss, E. Koltay, G. Szabó, and L. Bozó, “Saharan dust episodes in Hungarian aerosol: elemental signatures and transport trajectories,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1205–1224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  265. G. Varga, J. Kovács, and G. Újvári, “Analysis of Saharan dust intrusions into the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe) over the period of 1979–2011,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 100, pp. 333–342, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  266. M. Cabello, J. A. G. Orza, M. A. Barrero et al., “Spatial and temporal variation of the impact of an extreme Saharan dust event,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 11, Article ID D11204, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  267. H. Ozdemir, B. Mertoglu, G. Demir, A. Deniz, and H. Toros, “Case study of PM pollution in playgrounds in Istanbul,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 108, no. 3-4, pp. 553–562, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  268. A. Sunnu, F. Resch, and G. Afeti, “Back-trajectory model of the saharan dust flux and particle mass distribution in West Africa,” Aeolian Research, vol. 9, pp. 125–132, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  269. S. Alonso-Pérez, E. Cuevas, X. Querol, J. C. Guerra, and C. Pérez, “African dust source regions for observed dust outbreaks over the Subtropical Eastern North Atlantic region, above 25°N,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 78, pp. 100–109, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  270. T. Haszpra and T. Tél, “Escape rate: a Lagrangian measure of particle deposition from the atmosphere,” Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 867–881, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  271. C. Y. Chan, K. H. Wong, Y. S. Li, L. Y. Chan, and X. D. Zheng, “The effects of Southeast Asia fire activities on tropospheric ozone, trace gases and aerosols at a remote site over the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China,” Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 310–318, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  272. M. Mahmud, “Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 78, pp. 242–249, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  273. K. B. Strawbridge, “Developing a portable, autonomous aerosol backscatter lidar for network or remote operations,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 801–816, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  274. G. M. Kelly, B. F. Taubman, L. B. Perry, J. P. Sherman, P. T. Soulé, and P. J. Sheridan, “Relationships between aerosols and precipitation in the southern Appalachian Mountains,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 33, no. 14, pp. 3016–3028, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  275. R. V. Díaz, J. López-Monroy, J. Miranda, and A. A. Espinosa, “PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 318, pp. 135–138, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  276. V. A. Barrera, J. Miranda, A. A. Espinosa et al., “Contribution of soil, Sulfate, and Biomass burning sources to the elemental composition of PM10 from Mexico city,” International Journal of Environmental Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 597–612, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  277. V. Ulevicius, S. Byčenkienë, V. Remeikis et al., “Characterization of pollution events in the East Baltic region affected by regional biomass fire emissions,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 98, no. 2–4, pp. 190–200, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  278. P. Ortiz-Amezcua, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Characterization of atmospheric aerosols for a long range transport of biomass burning particles from canadian forest fires over the southern iberian peninsula in july 2013,” Óptica Pura y Aplicada, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  279. S. Y. Ryu, J. E. Kim, H. Zhuanshi, Y. J. Kim, and G. U. Kang, “Chemical composition of post-harvest biomass burning aerosols in Gwangju, Korea,” Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1124–1137, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  280. H. Nara, H. Tanimoto, Y. Nojiri et al., “CO emissions from biomass burning in South-east Asia in the 2006 El Niño year: shipboard and AIRS satellite observations,” Environmental Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 213–223, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  281. P. Deka and R. R. Hoque, “Incremental effect of festive biomass burning on wintertime PM10 in Brahmaputra Valley of Northeast India,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 143, pp. 380–391, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  282. M. Notaro, F. Alkolibi, E. Fadda, and F. Bakhrjy, “Trajectory analysis of Saudi Arabian dust storms,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. 6028–6043, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  283. K. Alam, R. Khan, S. Ali et al., “Variability of aerosol optical depth over Swat in Northern Pakistan based on satellite data,” Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 547–555, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  284. B. Gharai, S. Jose, and D. V. Mahalakshmi, “Monitoring intense dust storms over the Indian region using satellite data—a case study,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 34, no. 20, pp. 7038–7048, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  285. P. R. Sinha, U. C. Dumka, R. K. Manchanda et al., “Contrasting aerosol characteristics and radiative forcing over Hyderabad, India due to seasonal mesoscale and synoptic-scale processes,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 139, no. 671, pp. 434–450, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  286. K. M. Latha and K. V. S. Badarinath, “Factors influencing aerosol characteristics over urban environment,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 104, no. 1–3, pp. 269–280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  287. S. S. Prijith, M. Aloysius, M. Mohan, N. Beegum, and K. Krishna Moorthy, “Role of circulation parameters in long range aerosol transport: evidence from Winter-ICARB,” Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol. 77, pp. 144–151, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  288. K. Vijayakumar and P. C. S. Devara, “Optical exploration of biomass burning aerosols over a high-altitude station by combining ground-based and satellite data,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 72, pp. 1–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  289. P. R. C. Rahul, P. S. Salvekar, and P. C. S. Devara, “Super cyclones induce variability in the aerosol optical depth prior to their formation over the oceans,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 985–988, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  290. S. Shalin and K. V. Sanilkumar, “Climatic oscillations in aerosol optical depth over tropical oceanic regions pertaining to genesis of the indian ocean Dipole,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 86–95, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  291. X. Deng, C. Shi, B. Wu et al., “Analysis of aerosol characteristics and their relationships with meteorological parameters over Anhui province in China,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 109–110, pp. 52–63, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  292. S. Katagiri, K. Yamada, A. Shimizu, T. Hayasaka, N. Sugimoto, and T. Takamura, “Observed radiative effects caused by yellow dust aerosol at Sendai,” in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Clouds, and Precipitation IV, T. Hayasaka, K. Nakamura, and E. Im, Eds., vol. 8523 of Proceedings of SPIE, October 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  293. D. Balis, “Geometrical characteristics of desert dust layers over Thessaloniki estimated with backscatter/Raman lidar and the BSC/DREAM model,” Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 353–362, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  294. A. Valenzuela, F. J. Olmo, H. Lyamani, M. Antón, A. Quirantes, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Classification of aerosol radiative properties during African desert dust intrusions over southeastern Spain by sector origins and cluster analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 6, Article ID D06214, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  295. V. Aaltonen, E. Rodriguez, S. Kazadzis et al., “On the variation of aerosol properties over Finland based on the optical columnar measurements,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 116, pp. 46–55, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  296. N. Kolev, T. Evgenieva, N. Miloshev et al., “Ceilometer, sun photometer and ozonometer measurements of the aerosol optical depth, angstrom coefficients, water vapor and total ozone content over Sofia (Bulgaria),” in Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements for Atmospheric Remote Sensing IX, U. N. Singh and G. Pappalardo, Eds., vol. 8894 of Proceedings of SPIE, Dresden, Germany, September 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  297. D. Stoyanov, I. Grigorov, A. Deleva et al., “Remote monitoring of aerosol layers over Sofia during Sahara dust transport episode (April, 2012),” in 17th International School on Quantum Electronics: Laser Physics and Applications (ISQE '12), T. Dreischuh and A. Daskalova, Eds., vol. 8770 of Proceedings of SPIE, 87700Y, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  298. T. Zieliński, T. Petelski, P. Makuch et al., “Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas with the use of remote techniques,” Acta Geophysica, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1359–1385, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  299. G. Karasiński, M. Posyniak, M. Bloch, P. Sobolewski, L. Małarzewski, and J. Soroka, “Lidar observations of volcanic dust over Polish Polar Station at Hornsund after eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn,” Acta Geophysica, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 316–339, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  300. S. I. Dolgii, V. D. Burlakov, A. P. Makeev et al., “Aerosol disturbances of the stratosphere after eruption of Grimsvötn volcano (Iceland, May 21, 2011) according to observations at lidar network stations of CIS countries CIS-LiNet in Minsk, Tomsk, and Vladivostok,” in Eighteenth International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics, G. G. Matvienko, V. I. Kurkin, and O. A. Romanovskii, Eds., vol. 8696 of Proceedings of SPIE, Irkutsk, Russia, July 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  301. A. Sorooshian, A. Wonaschütz, E. G. Jarjour, B. I. Hashimoto, B. A. Schichtel, and E. A. Betterton, “An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (Southern Arizona): major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 116, no. D19, Article ID D19205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  302. L. E. Olcese, G. G. Palancar, and B. M. Toselli, “Aerosol optical properties in central Argentina,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 68, pp. 25–37, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  303. K. R. Kumar, V. Sivakumar, R. R. Reddy, K. R. Gopal, and A. J. Adesina, “Inferring wavelength dependence of AOD and Ångström exponent over a sub-tropical station in South Africa using AERONET data: influence of meteorology, long-range transport and curvature effect,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 461-462, pp. 397–408, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  304. A. Slingo, N. A. Bharmal, G. J. Robinson et al., “Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger: meteorology and thermodynamic variables,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 113, no. 13, Article ID D00E01, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  305. K. Louedec and M. Will, “Atmospheric considerations for CTA site search using global models,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 409, no. 1, Article ID 012121, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  306. K. Louedec, “Origin of atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory using backward trajectory of air masses,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 409, no. 1, Article ID 012236, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  307. M. S. Callén, M. T. de la Cruz, J. M. López, and A. M. Mastral, “PAH in airborne particulate matter. Carcinogenic character of PM10 samples and assessment of the energy generation impact,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 176–182, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  308. S.-D. Choi, Y. S. Ghim, J. Y. Lee, J. Y. Kim, and Y. P. Kim, “Factors affecting the level and pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Gosan, Korea during a dust period,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 227-228, pp. 79–87, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  309. S. Sarkar and P. S. Khillare, “Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metallic species in a tropical urban atmosphere—Delhi, India,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 107–126, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  310. A.-L. Egebäck, U. Wideqvist, U. Järnberg, and L. Asplund, “Polychlorinated naphthalenes in Swedish background air,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 19, pp. 4913–4920, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  311. D. Melas, C. Zerefos, S. Rapsomanikis, N. Tsangas, and A. Alexandropoulou, “The war in Kosovo. Evidence of pollution transport in the Balkans during operation ‘Allied Force’,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 97–104, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  312. V. C. Garcia, E. Gego, S. Lin et al., “An evaluation of transported pollution and respiratory-related hospital admissions in the state of New York,” Atmospheric Pollution Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  313. F. Zemmer, F. Karaca, and F. Ozkaragoz, “Ragweed pollen observed in Turkey: detection of sources using back trajectory models,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 430, pp. 101–108, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  314. L. Makra, T. Sánta, I. Matyasovszky et al., “Airborne pollen in three European cities: detection of atmospheric circulation pathways by applying three-dimensional clustering of backward trajectories,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. 24, Article ID D24220, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  315. B. Šikoparija, C. A. Skjøth, K. Alm Kübler et al., “A mechanism for long distance transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 180, pp. 112–117, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  316. S. Fernández-Rodríguez, C. A. Skjøth, R. Tormo-Molina et al., “Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 337–348, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  317. M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, C. A. Skjøth, H. García-Mozo, J. P. Bolívar, and C. Galán, “Improvement in the accuracy of back trajectories using WRF to identify pollen sources in Southern Iberian Peninsula,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 2031–2043, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  318. C. F. Pérez, M. E. Castañeda, M. I. Gassmann, and M. M. Bianchi, “A statistical study of Weinmannia pollen trajectories across the Andes,” Advances in Geosciences, vol. 22, pp. 79–84, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  319. C.-J. Ma and K.-H. Kim, “Artificial and biological particles in the springtime atmosphere,” Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 209–216, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  320. S. Krupa, V. Bowersox, R. Claybrooke et al., “Introduction of asian soybean rust urediniospores into the midwestern United States—a case study,” Plant Disease, vol. 90, no. 9, pp. 1254–1259, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  321. D. J. Smith, D. A. Jaffe, M. N. Birmele et al., “Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 973–985, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  322. B. Stres, W. J. Sul, B. Murovec, and J. M. Tiedje, “Recently deglaciated high-altitude soils of the Himalaya: diverse environments, heterogenous bacterial communities and long-range dust inputs from the upper troposphere,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e76440, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  323. R. F. Hopkinson and J. J. Soroka, “Air trajectory model applied to an in-depth diagnosis of potential diamondback moth infestations on the Canadian Prairies,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  324. M. S. Najafi, F. Khoshakhllagh, S. M. Zamanzadeh, M. H. Shirazi, M. Samadi, and S. Hajikhani, “Characteristics of TSP Loads during the Middle East Springtime Dust Storm (MESDS) in Western Iran,” Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 5367–5381, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  325. J. Miao, Y.-Q. Wu, Z.-J. Gong, Y.-Z. He, Y. Duan, and Y.-L. Jiang, “Long-distance wind-borne dispersal of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera:Cecidomyiidae) in Northern China,” Journal of Insect Behavior, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 120–129, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  326. D. Eagles, P. J. Walker, M. P. Zalucki, and P. A. Durr, “Modelling spatio-temporal patterns of long-distance Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 110, no. 3-4, pp. 312–322, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  327. R. García-Lastra, I. Leginagoikoa, J. M. Plazaola et al., “Bluetongue virus serotype 1 outbreak in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) 2007-2008. Data support a primary vector windborne transport,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e34421, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar