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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2015, Article ID 352380, 21 pages
Research Article

The Variability of Arctic Sea Ice Extent from Spring to Summer and Its Linkage to the Decline of SIE in September

1Institute for Energy, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communalities, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada S4S 0A2
2Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3
3Department of Geosciences and Environment, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA

Received 2 January 2015; Revised 14 May 2015; Accepted 14 May 2015

Academic Editor: Hiroyuki Hashiguchi

Copyright © 2015 Zhenhao Bao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The satellite record analysis for monthly differences of Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) shows that the most significant accelerated monthly sea ice reduction occurred between June and July although, on average, the largest sea ice reduction occurred between July and August. The monthly difference of June minus July (JJ) SIE has the strongest correlation with September SIE, with a correlation coefficient of −0.786 (original time series) and −0.625 (detrended time series) at confidence level of 99%. Furthermore, it is found that the correlation coefficient between JJ SIE and July minus August (JA) SIE is so low (0.068) that they can be thought to be independent from each other, considering that the JA SIE is also significantly negatively correlated to September SIE. A simple regression forecasting model for September SIE was established using monthly SIE differences for the JJ and JA. This study also shows that the JJ SIE is significantly correlated not only with sea level pressure (SLP) in polar regions and midlatitudes over eastern Atlantic in July, a pattern which resembles the negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), but also with sea surface temperature (SST) in midlatitudes over central North Pacific in the preceding spring.