Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2015, Article ID 720967, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/720967
Review Article

Predicting Surface Runoff from Catchment to Large Region

1State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
2CSIRO Land Water Flagship, Clunies Ross Street, Acton, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
3Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021, China

Received 5 January 2015; Accepted 7 June 2015

Academic Editor: Enrico Ferrero

Copyright © 2015 Hongxia Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Vaze, and B. Wang, “Separating effects of vegetation change and climate variability using hydrological modelling and sensitivity-based approaches,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 420-421, pp. 403–418, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Zhao, F. H. S. Chiew, L. Zhang, J. Vaze, J. M. Perraud, and M. Li, “Application of a macroscale hydrologic model to estimate streamflow across Southeast Australia,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1233–1250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Sorooshian and V. Gupta, “Effective and efficient global optimization for conceptual rainfall-runoff models,” Water Resources Research, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1015–1031, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Zhang, F. H. S. Chiew, L. Zhang, and H. Li, “Use of remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration to improve rainfall-runoff modeling in Southeast Australia,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 969–980, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Andersen, G. Dybkjaer, K. H. Jensen, J. C. Refsgaard, and K. Rasmussen, “Use of remotely sensed precipitation and leaf area index in a distributed hydrological model,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 264, no. 1-4, pp. 34–50, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Li and Q. Shao, “An improved statistical approach to merge satellite rainfall estimates and raingauge data,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 385, no. 1–4, pp. 51–64, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Madsen, “Automatic calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model using multiple objectives,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 235, no. 3-4, pp. 276–288, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. A. Vrugt, H. V. Gupta, L. A. Bastidas, W. Bouten, and S. Sorooshian, “Effective and efficient algorithm for multiobjective optimization of hydrologic models,” Water Resources Research, vol. 39, no. 8, p. 1214, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. R. Willem Vervoort, S. F. Miechels, F. F. van Ogtrop, and J. H. Guillaume, “Remotely sensed evapotranspiration to calibrate a lumped conceptual model: pitfalls and opportunities,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 519, pp. 3223–3236, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Abu El-Nasr, J. G. Arnold, J. Feyen, and J. Berlamont, “Modelling the hydrology of a catchment using a distributed and a semi-distributed model,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 573–587, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Huang and L. Zhang, “Hydrological responses to conservation practices in a catchment of the Loess Plateau, China,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1885–1898, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Zhang and F. H. S. Chiew, “Relative merits of different methods for runoff predictions in ungauged catchments,” Water Resources Research, vol. 45, no. 7, Article ID W07412, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Li, Y. Zhang, Z. Xu et al., “The impact of climate change on runoff in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 505, pp. 188–201, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. R. Young, “Stream flow simulation within UK ungauged catchments using a daily rainfall-runoff model,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 320, no. 1-2, pp. 155–172, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Oudin, V. Andréassian, C. Perrin, C. Michel, and N. Le Moine, “Spatial proximity, physical similarity, regression and ungaged catchments: a comparison of regionalization approaches based on 913 French catchments,” Water Resources Research, vol. 44, no. 3, Article ID W03413, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. K. Mishra and P. Coulibaly, “Developments in hydrometric network design: a review,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 47, no. 2, Article ID RG2001, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Sivapalan, “Prediction in ungauged basins: a grand challenge for theoretical hydrology,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 17, no. 15, pp. 3163–3170, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Hrachowitz, H. H. G. Savenije, G. Blöschl et al., “A decade of Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB)-a review,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1198–1255, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Merz and G. Blöschl, “Regionalisation of catchment model parameters,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 287, no. 1–4, pp. 95–123, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Razavi and P. Coulibaly, “Streamflow prediction in ungauged basins: review of regionalization methods,” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 958–975, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Parajka, G. Blöschl, and R. Merz, “Regional calibration of catchment models: potential for ungauged catchments,” Water Resources Research, vol. 43, no. 6, Article ID W06406, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Q. Zhang, N. R. Viney, F. H. S. Chiew, A. I. J. M. Van Dijk, and Y. Y. Liu, “Improving hydrological and vegetation modelling using regional model calibration schemes together with remote sensing data,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM '11), pp. 3448–3454, December 2011. View at Scopus
  23. K. J. Beven, Rainfall-Runoff Modeling—The Primer, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001.
  24. I. Haddeland, D. B. Clark, W. Franssen et al., “Multimodel estimate of the global terrestrial water balance: setup and first results,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 869–884, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. C. Refsgaard and B. Storm, “MIKE SHE,” in Computer Models in Watershed Hydrology, V. J. Singh, Ed., Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  26. T. Wagener, “Evaluation of catchment models,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 3375–3378, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. F. H. S. Chiew, A. J. Pitman, and T. A. McMahon, “Conceptual catchment scale rainfall-runoff models and AGCM land-surface parameterisation schemes,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 179, no. 1-4, pp. 137–157, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Kling and H. Gupta, “On the development of regionalization relationships for lumped watershed models: the impact of ignoring sub-basin scale variability,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 373, no. 3-4, pp. 337–351, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Fleming, Computer Simulation Techniques in Hydrology, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
  30. V. P. Singh, Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, Water Resources Publications, 1995.
  31. N. H. Crawford and R. K. Linsley, The Synthesis of Continuous Streamflow Hydrographs on a Digital Computer, Stanford University, 1962.
  32. Z. Ren-Jun, “The Xinanjiang model applied in China,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 135, no. 1–4, pp. 371–381, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. J. Burnash, C. Ferreal, R. A. McGuire, and R. L. McGuire, A Generalized Streamflow Simulation System: Conceptual Modeling for Digital Computers, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Weather Service, 1973.
  34. H. V. Gupta, S. Sorooshian, and P. O. Yapo, “Toward improved calibration of hydrologic models: multiple and noncommensurable measures of information,” Water Resources Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 751–763, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Vansteenkiste, M. Tavakoli, V. Ntegeka et al., “Intercomparison of hydrological model structures and calibration approaches in climate scenario impact projections,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 519, pp. 743–755, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Reed, V. Koren, M. Smith, Z. Zhang, F. Moreda, and D.-J. Seo, “Overall distributed model intercomparison project results,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 298, no. 1-4, pp. 27–60, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. M. Carpenter and K. P. Georgakakos, “Intercomparison of lumped versus distributed hydrologic model ensemble simulations on operational forecast scales,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 329, no. 1-2, pp. 174–185, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. J. Beven and M. J. Kirkby, “A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology / Un modèle à base physique de zone d'appel variable de l'hydrologie du bassin versant,” Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 43–69, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. B. Abbott, J. C. Bathurst, J. A. Cunge, P. E. O'Connell, and J. Rasmussen, “An introduction to the European Hydrological System—Systeme Hydrologique Europeen, ‘SHE’, 2: structure of a physically-based, distributed modelling system,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 87, no. 1-2, pp. 61–77, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. L. Neitsch, J. G. Arnold, J. R. Kiniry, J. R. Willams, and K. W. King, “Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Documentation,” Version 2000, 2000, http://swat.tamu.edu/documentation/.
  41. D. J. Booker and R. A. Woods, “Comparing and combining physically-based and empirically-based approaches for estimating the hydrology of ungauged catchments,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 508, pp. 227–239, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Perrin, C. Michel, and V. Andréassian, “Does a large number of parameters enhance model performance? Comparative assessment of common catchment model structures on 429 catchments,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 242, no. 3-4, pp. 275–301, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. B. Bonan, “A land surface model (LSM version 1.0) for ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric studies: technical description and user's guide,” NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-417+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  44. S. Manabe, “Climate and the ocean circulation I. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the Earth's surface,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 739–774, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. R. E. Dickinson, A. Henderson-Sellers, P. J. Kennedy, and M. F. Wilson, “Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model,” Technical Note TN-275+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  46. P. J. Sellers, Y. Mintz, Y. C. Sud, and A. Dalcher, “A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 505–531, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K. W. Oleson, D. M. Lawrence, G. B. Bonan et al., “Technical description of version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM),” NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-503+STR, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. R. D. Koster and P. C. D. Milly, “The interplay between transpiration and runoff formulations in land surface schemes used with atmospheric models,” Journal of Climate, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1578–1591, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Stöckli, P. L. Vidale, A. Boone, and C. Schär, “Impact of scale and aggregation on the terrestrial water exchange: integrating land surface models and rhône catchment observations,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1002–1015, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. Widén-Nilsson, S. Halldin, and C.-Y. Xu, “Global water-balance modelling with WASMOD-M: parameter estimation and regionalisation,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 340, no. 1-2, pp. 105–118, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. N. Gosling, R. G. Taylor, N. W. Arnell, and M. C. Todd, “A comparative analysis of projected impacts of climate change on river runoff from global and catchment-scale hydrological models,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 279–294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. Blöschl and M. Sivapalan, “Scale issues in hydrological modelling: a review,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 251–290, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Samuel, P. Coulibaly, and R. A. Metcalfe, “Estimation of continuous streamflow in ontario ungauged basins: comparison of regionalization methods,” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 447–459, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Stoll and M. Weiler, “Explicit simulations of stream networks to guide hydrological modelling in ungauged basins,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1435–1448, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. M. Parada and X. Liang, “A novel approach to infer streamflow signals for ungauged basins,” Advances in Water Resources, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 372–386, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. Li, Y. Zhang, F. H. S. Chiew, and S. Xu, “Predicting runoff in ungauged catchments by using Xinanjiang model with MODIS leaf area index,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 370, no. 1–4, pp. 155–162, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Parajka, R. Merz, and G. Blöschl, “A comparison of regionalisation methods for catchment model parameters,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 157–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. P. C. Reichl, A. W. Western, N. R. McIntyre, and F. H. S. Chiew, “Optimization of a similarity measure for estimating ungauged streamflow,” Water Resources Research, vol. 45, no. 10, Article ID W10423, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. Samaniego, A. Bárdossy, and R. Kumar, “Streamflow prediction in ungauged catchments using copula-based dissimilarity measures,” Water Resources Research, vol. 46, no. 2, Article ID W02506, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. I. Masih, S. Uhlenbrook, S. Maskey, and M. D. Ahmad, “Regionalization of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model based on similarity of the flow duration curve: a case study from the semi-arid Karkheh basin, Iran,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 391, no. 1-2, pp. 188–201, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Li, Q. Shao, L. Zhang, and F. H. S. Chiew, “A new regionalization approach and its application to predict flow duration curve in ungauged basins,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 389, no. 1-2, pp. 137–145, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Shu and T. B. M. J. Ouarda, “Improved methods for daily streamflow estimates at ungauged sites,” Water Resources Research, vol. 48, no. 2, Article ID W02523, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. McIntyre, H. Lee, H. Wheater, A. Young, and T. Wagener, “Ensemble predictions of runoff in ungauged catchments,” Water Resources Research, vol. 41, no. 12, Article ID W12434, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F. Li, Y. Zhang, Z. Xu, C. Liu, Y. Zhou, and W. Liu, “Runoff predictions in ungauged catchments in southeast Tibetan Plateau,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 511, pp. 28–38, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. J. Beven, “Changing ideas in hydrology—the case of physically-based models,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 157–172, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. J. Jakeman and G. M. Hornberger, “How much complexity is warranted in a rainfall-runoff model?” Water Resources Research, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 2637–2649, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. V. Gupta, T. Wagener, and Y. Liu, “Reconciling theory with observations: elements of a diagnostic approach to model evaluation,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 22, no. 18, pp. 3802–3813, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Seibert and J. J. McDonnell, “On the dialog between experimentalist and modeler in catchment hydrology: use of soft data for multicriteria model calibration,” Water Resources Research, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 231–2314, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Nester, R. Kirnbauer, J. Parajka, and G. Blöschl, “Evaluating the snow component of a flood forecasting model,” Hydrology Research, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 762–779, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. A. Mohamed, H. H. G. Savenije, W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, and B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, “New lessons on the Sudd hydrology learned from remote sensing and climate modeling,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 507–518, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. Parajka and G. Blöschl, “Validation of MODIS snow cover images over Austria,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 679–689, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. H. C. Winsemius, H. H. G. Savenije, and W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, “Constraining model parameters on remotely sensed evaporation: justification for distribution in ungauged basins?” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1403–1413, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y. Q. Zhang, F. H. S. Chiew, L. Zhang, R. Leuning, and H. A. Cleugh, “Estimating catchment evaporation and runoff using MODIS leaf area index and the Penman-Monteith equation,” Water Resources Research, vol. 44, no. 10, Article ID W10420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y. Q. Zhang, N. R. Viney, F. H. S. Chiew, A. I. J. M. Dijk, and Y. Y. Liu, “Improving hydrological and vegetation modelling using regional model calibration schemes together with remote sensing data,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM '11), pp. 12–16, Perth, Australia, 2011.
  75. G. Blöschl, C. Reszler, and J. Komma, “A spatially distributed flash flood forecasting model,” Environmental Modelling & Software, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 464–478, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. N. K. Tuteja, J. Vaze, J. Teng, and M. Mutendeudzi, “Partitioning the effects of pine plantations and climate variability on runoff from a large catchment in southeastern Australia,” Water Resources Research, vol. 43, no. 8, Article ID W08415, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. O. Yildiz and A. P. Barros, “Elucidating vegetation controls on the hydroclimatology of a mid-latitude basin,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 333, no. 2-4, pp. 431–448, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. N. K. Tuteja, J. Vaze, J. Teng, and M. Mutendeudzi, “Partitioning the effects of pine plantations and climate variability on runoff from a large catchment in southeastern Australia,” Water Resources Research, vol. 43, no. 8, Article ID W08415, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Fang and W. Huang, “Tracking the Indonesian forest fire using NOAA/AVHRR images,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 387–390, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. D. M. Islam and K. Sado, “Development of flood hazard maps of Bangladesh using NOAA-AVHRR images with GIS,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 337–355, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  81. R. Ranzi, G. Grossi, and B. Bacchi, “Ten years of monitoring areal snowpack in the Southern Alps using NOAA-AVHRR imagery, ground measurements and hydrological data,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 13, no. 12-13, pp. 2079–2095, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. L. Oudin, V. Andréassian, J. Lerat, and C. Michel, “Has land cover a significant impact on mean annual streamflow? An international assessment using 1508 catchments,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 357, no. 3-4, pp. 303–316, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. X. Liang and Z. Xie, “A new surface runoff parameterization with subgrid-scale soil heterogeneity for land surface models,” Advances in Water Resources, vol. 24, no. 9-10, pp. 1173–1193, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. J. Pitman, A. G. Slater, C. E. Desborough, and M. Zhao, “Uncertainty in the simulation of runoff due to the parameterization of frozen soil moisture using the Global Soil Wetness Project methodology,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 104, no. 14, pp. 16879–16888, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. V. Haverd and M. Cuntz, “Soil-Litter-Iso: a one-dimensional model for coupled transport of heat, water and stable isotopes in soil with a litter layer and root extraction,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 388, no. 3-4, pp. 438–455, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. H. I. Choi and X.-Z. Liang, “Improved terrestrial hydrologic representation in mesoscale land surface models,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 797–809, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. W. F. Krajewski, G. Villarini, and J. A. Smith, “Radar-rainfall uncertainties: where are we after thirty years of effort,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 87–94, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. R. J. Moore, S. J. Cole, and A. J. Illingworth, Weather Radar and Hydrology, IAHS Publication 351, IAHS Press, Wallingford, Conn, USA, 2012.
  89. U. Ehret, Rainfall and flood nowcasting in small catchments using weather radar [Ph.D. thesis], University of Stuttgart, 2002.
  90. E. Todini, “A Bayesian technique for conditioning radar precipitation estimates to rain-gauge measurements,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 187–199, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. J. Pereira Filho, “Integrating gauge, radar and satellite rainfall,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Precipitation Working Group Workshop, 2004.
  92. G. J. Huffman, R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin et al., “The TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis (TMPA): quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 38–55, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. A. Vila, L. G. G. De Goncalves, D. L. Toll, and J. R. Rozante, “Statistical evaluation of combined daily gauge observations and rainfall satellite estimates over continental South America,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 533–543, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. D.-J. Seo, “Real-time estimation of rainfall fields using rain gage data under fractional coverage conditions,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 208, no. 1-2, pp. 25–36, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. J. Gottschalck, J. Meng, M. Rodell, and P. Houser, “Analysis of multiple precipitation products and preliminary assessment of their impact on global land data assimilation system land surface states,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 573–598, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. Chappell, L. H. Renzullo, T. J. Raupach, and M. Haylock, “Evaluating geostatistical methods of blending satellite and gauge data to estimate near real-time daily rainfall for Australia,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 493, pp. 105–114, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. K. Mitra, I. M. Momin, E. N. Rajagopal, S. Basu, M. N. Rajeevan, and T. N. Krishnamurti, “Gridded daily Indian monsoon rainfall for 14 seasons: merged TRMM and IMD gauge analyzed values,” Journal of Earth System Science, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 1173–1182, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. Ryo, O. C. S. Valeriano, S. Kanae, and T. D. Ngoc, “Temporal downscaling of daily gauged precipitation by application of a satellite product for flood simulation in a poorly gauged basin and its evaluation with multiple regression analysis,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 563–580, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. Boughton and F. Chiew, Calibrations of the AWBM for Use on Ungauged Catchments, 2004.
  100. C. Perrin, C. Michel, and V. Andréassian, “Improvement of a parsimonious model for streamflow simulation,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 279, no. 1–4, pp. 275–289, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. Bergstrom, “The HBV model,” in Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, V. P. Singh, Ed., 1995. View at Google Scholar
  102. A. D. Feldman, “HEC models for water resources management simulation: theory and experience,” Advances in Hydroscience, vol. 12, pp. 297–423, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. N. H. Crawford and R. K. Linsley, Digital Simulation in Hydrology: Stanford Watershed Model IV, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif, USA, 1966.
  104. J. W. Porter and T. A. McMahon, “A model for the simulation of streamflow data from climatic records,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 13, pp. 297–324, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. F. H. S. Chiew, M. C. Peel, and A. W. Western, “Application and testing of the simple rainfall-runoff model SIMHYD,” in Mathematical Models of Small Watershed Hydrology and Applications, V. P. Singh and D. K. Frevert, Eds., Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  106. M. Sugawawa, I. Watanabe, E. Ozaki, and Y. Katsuyama, Tank Model Programs for Personal Computer and the Way to Use, National Research Center for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan, 1961.
  107. J. Martinec, “Snowmelt-Runoff Models for stream flow forecasts,” Nordic Hydrology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 145–154, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. G. Morin, CEQUEAU, INRS-ETE, 2002.
  109. J.-P. Fortin, R. Turcotte, S. Massicotte, R. Moussa, J. Fitzback, and J. P. Villeneuve, “Distributed watershed model compatible with remote sensing and GIS data. I: description of model,” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. A. Calver and W. L. Wood, “The institute of hydrology distributed model,” in Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, V. P. Singh, Ed., pp. 595–626, Water Resources Publications, Highlands Ranch, Colo, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  111. G. W. Kite, “The SLURP model,” in Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, V. P. Singh, Ed., pp. 521–562, Water Resources Publications, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  112. L. A. Rossman, Storm Water Management Model User's Manual, EPA/600/R-05/040, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, 2007.
  113. N. Kouwen, WATFLOOD/SPL9 Hydrological Model & Flood Forecasting System, University of Waterloo, 2001.
  114. N. Hanasaki, S. Kanae, and T. Oki, “Global energy and water balance simulation with bucket model for GSWP2,” in Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Hydrology and the 15th Symposium on Global Change and Climate Variations, JP4.26, 2004.
  115. E. A. Kowalczyk, Y. P. Wang, R. M. Law, H. L. Davies, J. L. McGregor, and G. Abramowitz, “CSIRO atmosphere biosphere land exchange (CABLE) model for use in climate models and as an offline model,” CMAR Research Paper 013, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  116. G. Y. Niu and Z. L. Yang, “The versatile integrator of surface and atmosphere processes (VISA). Part 2: evaluation of three topography-based runoff schemes,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 38, pp. 191–208, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  117. P. A. Dirmeyer and F. J. Zeng, “An update to the distribution and treatment of vegetation and soil properties in SSiB,” COLA Technical Report 78, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  118. J. R. Meigh, A. A. McKenzie, and K. J. Sene, “A grid-based approach to water scarcity estimates for eastern and southern Africa,” Water Resources Management, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 85–115, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. N. Hanasaki, S. Kanae, T. Oki et al., “An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources—part 1: model description and input meteorological forcing,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1007–1025, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. G. Balsamo, P. Viterbo, A. Beijaars et al., “A revised hydrology for the ECMWF model: verification from field site to terrestrial water storage and impact in the integrated forecast system,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 623–643, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. D. M. Mocko and Y. C. Sud, “Refinements to SSiB with an emphasis on snowphysics: evaluation and validation using GSWP and valdai data,” Earth Interactions, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–31, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. P. Etchevers, C. Golaz, and F. Habets, “Simulation of the water budget and the river flows of the Rhone basin from 1981 to 1994,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 244, no. 1-2, pp. 60–85, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. P. M. Cox, R. A. Betts, C. B. Bunton, R. L. H. Essery, P. R. Rowntree, and J. Smith, “The impact of new land surface physics on the GCM simulation of climate and climate sensitivity,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 183–203, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. P. C. D. Milly and A. B. Shmakin, “Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part I: the land dynamics (LaD) model,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 283–299, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. S. Rost, D. Gerten, A. Bondeau, W. Lucht, J. Rohwer, and S. Schaphoff, “Agricultural green and blue water consumption and its influence on the global water system,” Water Resources Research, vol. 44, no. 9, Article ID W09405, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. N. W. Arnell, “A simple water balance model for the simulation of streamflow over a large geographic domain,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 217, no. 3-4, pp. 314–335, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. K. Takata, S. Emori, and T. Watanabe, “Development of the minimal advanced treatments of surface interaction and runoff,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 38, no. 1-2, pp. 209–222, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. R. D. Koster and M. J. Suarez, “The influence of land surface moisture retention on precipitation statistics,” Journal of Climate, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 2551–2567, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  129. S. Hagemann and L. D. Gates, “Improving a subgrid runoff parameterization scheme for climate models by the use of high resolution data derived from satellite observations,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 21, no. 3-4, pp. 349–359, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. F. Chen, K. Mitchell, J. Schaake et al., “Modeling of land surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 7251–7268, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. A. Ducharne, R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, M. Stieglitz, and P. Kumar, “A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model 2. Parameter estimation and model demonstration,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 105, no. 20, pp. 24823–24838, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. P. de Rosnay and J. Polcher, “Modelling root water uptake in a complex land surface scheme coupled to a GCM,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2-3, pp. 239–255, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. K. Tanaka, N. Tadanori, and I. Shuichi, “Land-surface parameterization in the Lake Biwa project,” Proceedings of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 42, pp. 79–84, 1998 (Japanese). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. Y. M. Gusev and O. N. Nasonova, “An experience of modelling heat and water exchange at the land surface on a large river basin scale,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 233, no. 1–4, pp. 1–18, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. D. P. Lettenmaier, E. F. Wood, and S. J. Burges, “A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 14–428, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. Z.-L. Yang and G.-Y. Niu, “The versatile integrator of surface and atmosphere processes part 1. Model description,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 38, no. 1-2, pp. 175–189, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. J. Alcamo, P. Döll, T. Henrichs et al., “Development and testing of the WaterGAP 2 global model of water use and availability,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 317–338, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. L. Kay, D. A. Jones, S. M. Crooks, A. Calver, and N. S. Reynard, “A comparison of three approaches to spatial generalization of rainfall-runoff models,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 3953–3973, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. Y. Zhang, J. Vaze, F. H. Chiew, J. Teng, and M. Li, “Predicting hydrological signatures in ungauged catchments using spatial interpolation, index model, and rainfall–runoff modelling,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 517, pp. 936–948, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. A. Yatagai, K. Kamiguchi, O. Arakawa, A. Hamada, N. Yasutomi, and A. Kitoh, “APHRODITE: constructing a long-term daily gridded precipitation dataset for Asia based on a dense network of rain gauges,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1401–1415, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. R. Joseph, T. M. Smith, M. R. P. Sapiano, and R. R. Ferraro, “A new high-resolution satellite-derived precipitation dataset for climate studies,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 935–952, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. P. A. Dirmeyer, A. J. Dolman, and N. Sato, “The global soil wetness project: a pilot project for global land surface modeling and validation,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 80, pp. 851–878, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  143. G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo et al., “Creation of the WATCH forcing data and its use to assess global and regional reference crop evaporation over land during the twentieth century,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 823–848, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. G. P. Weedon, G. Balsamo, N. Bellouin, S. Gomes, M. J. Best, and P. Viterbo, “The WFDEI meteorological forcing data set: WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data,” Water Resources Research, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 7505–7514, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  145. P. Xie and P. A. Arkin, “Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 2539–2558, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. R. J. Joyce, J. E. Janowiak, P. A. Arkin, and P. Xie, “CMORPH: a method that produces global precipitation estimates from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 487–503, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. I. Harris, P. D. Jones, T. J. Osborn, and D. H. Lister, “Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations—the CRU TS3.10 Dataset,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 623–642, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. P. E. Thornton, M. M. Thornton, B. W. Mayer et al., Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2. Data Set, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tenn, USA, 2014, http://daac.ornl.gov/.
  149. D. R. Legates and C. J. Willmott, “Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 41, no. 1-2, pp. 11–21, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. U. Schneider, A. Becker, P. Finger, A. Meyer-Christoffer, M. Ziese, and B. Rudolf, “GPCC's new land surface precipitation climatology based on quality-controlled in situ data and its role in quantifying the global water cycle,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 115, no. 1-2, pp. 15–40, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. J. Sheffield, G. Goteti, and E. F. Wood, “Development of a 50-year high-resolution global dataset of meteorological forcings for land surface modeling,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 3088–3111, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, A. Chang et al., “The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979-present),” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1147–1167, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. A. Andersson, K. Fennig, C. Klepp, S. Bakan, H. Graßl, and J. Schulz, “The hamburg ocean atmosphere parameters and fluxes from satellite data—HOAPS-3,” Earth System Science Data, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 215–234, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  154. W. G. Large and S. G. Yeager, “The global climatology of an interannually varying air—sea flux data set,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 33, no. 2-3, pp. 341–364, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. K. E. Mitchell, D. Lohmann, P. R. Houser et al., “The multi-institution North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS): utilizing multiple GCIP products and partners in a continental distributed hydrological modeling system,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 109, Article ID D07S90, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  156. M. Rodell, P. R. Houser, U. Jambor et al., “The global land data assimilation system,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 381–394, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. S. Sorooshian, K.-L. Hsu, X. Gao, H. V. Gupta, B. Imam, and D. Braithwaite, “Evaluation of PERSIANN system satellite–based estimates of tropical rainfall,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 2035–2046, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. M. Chen, P. Xie, J. E. Janowiak, and P. A. Arkin, “Global land precipitation: a 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 249–266, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. C. Daly, M. Halbleib, J. I. Smith et al., “Physiographically sensitive mapping of climatological temperature and precipitation across the conterminous United States,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2031–2064, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. R. R. Ferraro, F. Weng, N. C. Grody, and A. Basist, “An eight-year (1987–1994) time series of rainfall, clouds, water vapor, snow cover, and sea ice derived from SSM/I measurements,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 891–905, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus