Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2015, Article ID 902084, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/902084
Research Article

Tropical Atlantic Contributions to Strong Rainfall Variability Along the Northeast Brazilian Coast

1Laboratório de Oceanografia Física Estuarina e Costeira (LOFEC), Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Cidade Universitária, Avenue Arquitetura s/n, 50740-550 Recife, PE, Brazil
2Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement (IRD), LEGOS, Centre IRD de Bretagne, Technopole Pointe du Diable, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané, France
3International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA), UNESCO Chair, UAC, 072 P.O. Box 50, Cotonou, Benin
4LOCEAN, IRD/CNRS/UPMC/MNHN, UMR 7159, Université Pierre et Marie Curie aile 45-55, 4e étage, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France

Received 22 July 2014; Accepted 9 September 2014

Academic Editor: Luis Gimeno

Copyright © 2015 G. A. Hounsou-gbo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. D. Moura and J. Shukla, “On the dynamics of droughts in northeast Brazil: observations, theory and numerical experiments with a general circulation model,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2653–2675, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Nobre and J. Shukla, “Variations of sea surface temperature, wind stress, and rainfall over the tropical Atlantic and South America,” Journal of Climate, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 2464–2479, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. M. B. Alves, J. Servain, and J. N. B. Campos, “Relationship between ocean climatic variability and rain-fed agriculture in northeast Brazil,” Climate Research, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 225–236, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. K. Kouadio, J. Servain, L. A. T. MacHado, and C. A. D. Lentini, “Heavy rainfall episodes in the eastern northeast brazil linked to large-scale ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical atlantic,” Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2012, Article ID 369567, 16 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Hastenrath and L. Greischar, “Circulation mechanisms related to northeast Brazil rainfall anomalies,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 5093–5102, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. B. Rao, M. C. De Lima, and S. H. Franchito, “Seasonal and interannual variations of rainfall over eastern northeast Brazil,” Journal of Climate, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1754–1763, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. B. Rao, I. F. A. Cavalcanti, and K. Hada, “Annual variation of rainfall over Brazil and water vapor characteristics over South America,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 101, no. 21, pp. 26539–26551, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Hastenrath, “Exploring the climate problems of Brazil's Nordeste: a review,” Climatic Change, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 243–251, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. E. Waliser and C. Gautier, “A satellite-derived climatology of the ITCZ,” Journal of Climate, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 2162–2174, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. G. Wagner, “Mechanisms controlling variability of the interhemispheric sea surface temperature gradient in the tropical Atlantic,” Journal of Climate, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 2010–2019, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Hastenrath, “Circulation and teleconnection mechanisms of Northeast Brazil droughts,” Progress in Oceanography, vol. 70, no. 2–4, pp. 407–415, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. E. Kousky and N. J. Ferreira, “Interdiurnal surface pressure variations in Brazil: their spatial distributions, origins and effects.,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 109, no. 9, pp. 1999–2008, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Diedhiou, S. Janicot, A. Viltard, and P. de Felice, “Evidence of two regimes of easterly waves over West Africa and the tropical Atlantic,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 2805–2808, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Diedhiou, L. A. T. Machado, and H. Laurent, “Mean kinematic characteristics of synoptic easterly disturbances over the Atlantic,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 27, pp. 483–499, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. L. A. T. Machado, R. L. Guedes, and M. A. S. Alves, “Structural characteristics of convective systems and forcing of convection in South America observed by satélites (Características Estruturais de Sistemas Convectivos e Forçantes da convecção na América do Sul observados por satélites),” Edição Comemorativa dos dez anos do Climanálise, pp. 110–122, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  16. H. Laurent, L. A. T. Machado, C. A. Morales, and L. Durieux, “Characteristics of the Amazonian mesoscale convective systems observed from satellite and radar during the WETAMC/LBA experiment,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 107, no. 20, pp. LBA 21-1–LBA 21-17, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Wang, D. B. Enfield, S.-K. Lee, and C. W. Landsea, “Influences of the Atlantic warm pool on western hemisphere summer rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3011–3028, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. B. Lucena, J. Servain, and M. F. G. Filho, “Rainfall response in Northeast Brazil from ocean climate variability during the second half of the 20th century,” Journal of Climate, vol. 24, no. 23, pp. 6174–6184, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. W. Robertson, C. R. Mechoso, and Y.-J. Kim, “The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic oscillation,” Journal of Climate, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 122–138, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Zhang and G. K. Vallis, “Impact of great salinity anomalies on the low-frequency variability of the North Atlantic climate,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 470–482, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Servain, J. Picaut, and A. J. Busalacchi, “Chapter 16 interannual and seasonal variability of the tropical atlantic ocean depicted by sixteen years of sea-surface temperature and wind stress,” Elsevier Oceanography Series, vol. 40, pp. 211–237, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Servain, M. Séva, S. Lukas, and G. Rougier, “Climatic atlas of the tropical Atlantic wind stress and sea surface temperature: 1980–1984,” Ocean-Air Interactions, vol. 1, pp. 109–182, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. Servain and S. Lukas, Climatic Atlas of the Tropical Atlantic Wind Stress and Sea Surface Temperature 1985-1989, vol. 70, IFREMER, Plouzané, France, 1990.
  24. S. R. Smith, J. Servain, D. M. Legler, J. N. Stricherz, M. A. Bourassa, and J. J. O'Brien, “In situ-based pseudo-wind stress products for the tropical oceans,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 979–994, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Yu and R. A. Weller, “Objectively analyzed air-sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 527–539, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Yu, X. Jin, and R. A. Weller, “Multidecade Global Flux Datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux ) Project: Latent and sensible heat fluxes, ocean evaporation, and related surface meteorological variables,” Tech. Rep. OA-2008-1, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  27. L. Yu and X. Jin, “Buoy perspective of a high-resolution global ocean vector wind analysis constructed from passive radiometers and active scatterometers (1987-present),” Journal of Geophysical Research C, vol. 117, no. 11, Article ID C11013, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Picaut, “Propagation of the seasonal upwelling in the eastern equatorial Atlantic,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 18–37, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. M. Silva, M. Araujo, J. Servain, and P. Penven, “Circulation and heat budget in a regional climatological simulation of the southwestern tropical Atlantic,” Tropical Oceanography, vol. 39, pp. 41–57, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Silva, M. Araujo, J. Servain, P. Penven, and C. A. D. Lentini, “High-resolution regional ocean dynamics simulation in the southwestern tropical Atlantic,” Ocean Modelling, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 256–269, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. M. Limongi, M. Araujo, I. C. Freitas, and M. Rollnic, “Massas d’água da região oeste do Atlântico tropical—ZEE-NE,” in Meteorologia e Sensoriamento Remoto, Oceanografia Física, Oceanografia Química e Oceanografia Biológica—Program REVIZEE—SCORE Nordeste, F. H. V. Hazin, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 56–68, Martins & Cordeiro, Fortaleza, Brazil, 1st edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  32. C. M. Limongi, M. Araujo, M. Rollnic, and I. C. Freitas, “Estrutura termohalina da região oeste do Atlântico tropical—ZEE-NE,” in Meteorologia e Sensoriamento Remoto, Oceanografia Física, Oceanografia Química e Oceanografia Biológica—Program REVIZEE—SCORE Nordeste, F. H. V. Hazin, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 40–54, Martins & Cordeiro, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Araujo, C. M. Limongi, J. Servain et al., “Salinity-induced mixed and barrier layers in the Southwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean off the Northeast of Brazil,” Ocean Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63–73, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Mignot, C. de Boyer Montégut, A. Lazar, and S. Cravatte, “Control of salinity on the mixed layer depth in the world ocean: 2. Tropical areas,” Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, vol. 112, no. 10, Article ID C10010, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Araujo, C. Limongi, J. Servain et al., “Salinity-induced mixed and barrier layers in the Southwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean off the Northeast of Brazil,” Ocean Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63–73, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Sprintall and M. Tomczak, “Evidence of the barrier layer in the surface layer of the tropics,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 97, pp. 7305–7316, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  37. J. Vialard and P. Delecluse, “An OGCM study for the TOGA decade. Part I: role of salinity in the physics of the western Pacific fresh pool,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1071–1088, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: an examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” Journal of Geophysical Research C, vol. 109, no. 12, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Servain, “Simple climatic indices for the tropical Atlantic Ocean and some applications,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 15137–15146, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Stramma, “Geostrophic transport of the South Equatorial Current in the Atlantic,” Journal of Marine Research, vol. 49, pp. 281–294, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. L. Richardson and T. K. McKee, “Average seasonal variation of the Atlantic equatorial currents from historical ship drifts,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 14, pp. 1226–1238, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  42. R. R. Rodrigues, L. M. Rothstein, and M. Wimbush, “Seasonal variability of the South Equatorial Current bifurcation in the Atlantic Ocean: a numerical study,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 16–30, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. A. Schott, J. Fischer, and L. Stramma, “Transports and pathways of the upper-layer circulation in the western tropical Atlantic,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1904–1928, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. Stramma, J. Fischer, P. Brandt, and F. Schott, “Circulation, variability and near-equatorial meridional flow in the central tropical Atlantic,” Elsevier Oceanography Series, vol. 68, pp. 1–22, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Rouault, P. Penven, and B. Pohl, “Warming in the agulhas current system since the 1980's,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1–5, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. M. Beal, W. P. M. de Ruijter, A. Biastoch et al., “On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate,” Nature, vol. 472, no. 7344, pp. 429–436, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus