Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2015, Article ID 936724, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/936724
Research Article

Intercomparison of Solid Precipitation Derived from the Weighting Rain Gauge and Optical Instruments in the Interior Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

1Cryosphere Research Station on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineer Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 10049, China
3Gansu Data Engineering and Technology Research Center for Resources and Environment, Lanzhou 73000, China

Received 19 May 2015; Revised 5 July 2015; Accepted 6 July 2015

Academic Editor: Gabriele Curci

Copyright © 2015 Lele Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Zhang, T. Ohata, D. Yang, and G. Davaa, “Bias correction of daily precipitation measurements for Mongolia,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 18, no. 16, pp. 2991–3005, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Yang and T. Ohata, “A bias-corrected Siberian regional precipitation climatology,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 122–139, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. M. Thériault, R. Rasmussen, K. Ikeda, and S. Landolt, “Dependence of snow gauge collection efficiency on snowflake characteristics,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 745–762, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. V. Nešpor and B. Sevruk, “Estimation of wind-induced error of rainfall gauge measurements using a numerical simulation,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 450–464, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. J. Garrett and S. E. Yuter, “Observed influence of riming, temperature, and turbulence on the fallspeed of solid precipitation,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 41, no. 18, pp. 6515–6522, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. C. Adam and D. P. Lettenmaier, “Adjustment of global gridded precipitation for systematic bias,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 108, no. 9, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Yang, D. Kane, Z. Zhang, D. Legates, and B. Goodison, “Bias corrections of long-term (1973–2004) daily precipitation data over the northern regions,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 19, Article ID L19501, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Sugiura, T. Ohata, D. Yang, T. Sato, and A. Sato, “Application of a snow particle counter to solid precipitation measurements under Arctic conditions,” Cold Regions Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 1-2, pp. 77–83, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Yang and A. Simonenko, “Comparison of winter precipitation measurements by six tretyakov gauges at the valdai experimental site,” Atmosphere-Ocean, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Rasmussen, B. Baker, J. Kochendorfer et al., “How well are we measuring snow: the NOAA/FAA/NCAR winter precipitation test bed,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 811–829, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Sugiura, D. Yang, and T. Ohata, “Systematic error aspects of gauge-measured solid precipitation in the Arctic, Barrow, Alaska,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 41–1, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Yang, “Double Fence Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) vs. Bush Gauge for ‘true’ snowfall measurement,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 509, pp. 94–100, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Ye, D. Yang, Y. Ding, T. Han, and T. Koike, “A bias-corrected precipitation climatology for China,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1147–1160, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Ding, D. Yang, B. Ye, and N. Wang, “Effects of bias correction on precipitation trend over China,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 112, no. 13, Article ID D13116, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, D. Yang, and S. B. Farhan, “Precipitation bias variability versus various gauges under different climatic conditions over the Third Pole Environment (TPE) region,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1201–1211, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Chen, J. Liu, E. Kang et al., “Precipitation measurement intercomparison in the Qilian Mountains, Northeastern Tibetan Plateau,” The Cryosphere Discussions, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 2201–2230, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. Ueno, H. Fujii, H. Yamada, and L. Liu, “Weak and frequent monsoon precipitation over the Tibetan plateau,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 419–434, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. I. Bloemink and E. Lanzinger, “Precipitation type from the Thies disdrometer,” in Proceedings of the WMO Technical Conference on Instruments and Methods of Observation, pp. 4–7, Bucharest, Romania, 2005.
  19. E. Lanzinger, M. Theel, and H. Windolph, “Rainfall amount and intensity measured by the Thies laser precipitation monitor,” in Proceedings of the WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation (TECO '06), pp. 2–6, Geneva, Switzerland, December 2006.
  20. R. P. de Moraes Frasson, L. K. da Cunha, and W. F. Krajewski, “Assessment of the Thies optical disdrometer performance,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 101, no. 1-2, pp. 237–255, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Tokay, D. B. Wolff, and W. A. Petersen, “Evaluation of the new version of the laser-optical disdrometer, OTT parsivel,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1276–1288, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Battaglia, E. Rustemeier, A. Tokay, U. Blahak, and C. Simmer, “PARSIVEL snow observations: a critical assessment,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 333–344, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. Lin, F. Niu, H. Liu, and J. Lu, “Hydrothermal processes of Alpine Tundra Lakes, Beiluhe Basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,” Cold Regions Science and Technology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 446–455, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. Lin, F. Niu, Z. Xu, J. Xu, and P. Wang, “Thermal regime of a thermokarst lake and its influence on permafrost, Beiluhe Basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,” Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 315–324, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Yao, L. Zhao, Y. Ding et al., “The surface energy budget and evapotranspiration in the Tanggula region on the Tibetan Plateau,” Cold Regions Science and Technology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 326–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Xiao, L. Zhao, R. Li et al., “The characteristics of surface albedo in permafrost regions of northern Tibetan plateau,” Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 480–488, 2010 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  27. L. Zhao, R. Li, and Y. Ding, “Simulation on the soil water-thermal characteristics of the active layer in Tanggula Range,” Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 930–937, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  28. X.-B. He, B.-S. Ye, and Y.-J. Ding, “Bias correction for precipitation mesuament in Tanggula Mountain Tibetan Plateau,” Advances in Water Science, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 403–408, 2009 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. D. Smith, “Correcting the wind bias in snowfall measurements made with a Geonor T-200B precipitation gauge and alter wind shield,” in Proceedings of the 87th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 2007.
  30. J. MacDonald and J. W. Pomeroy, “Gauge undercatch of two common snowfall gauges in a prairie environment,” in Proceedings of the 64th Eastern Snow Conference, pp. 119–124, St. John's, Canada, June 2007.
  31. M. Hayashi and C. R. Farrow, “Watershed-scale response of groundwater recharge to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in precipitation (Alberta, Canada),” Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1825–1839, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Zhou, J. W. Pomeroy, W. Zhang, G. Cheng, G. Wang, and C. Chen, “Simulating cold regions hydrological processes using a modular model in the west of China,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 509, pp. 13–24, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. L. Hood and M. Hayashi, “Characterization of snowmelt flux and groundwater storage in an alpine headwater basin,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 521, pp. 482–497, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. K. MacDonald, J. W. Pomeroy, and A. Pietroniro, “On the importance of sublimation to an alpine snow mass balance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1401–1415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. Fang, J. W. Pomeroy, C. R. Ellis, M. K. MacDonald, C. M. Debeer, and T. Brown, “Multi-variable evaluation of hydrological model predictions for a headwater basin in the Canadian Rocky Mountains,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1635–1659, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Harder and J. W. Pomeroy, “Hydrological model uncertainty due to precipitation-phase partitioning methods,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 28, no. 14, pp. 4311–4327, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Q. Zhao, B. Ye, X. He, J. Zhang, and C. Zhao, “Bias correction of daily precipitation measured by Geonor T-200B precipitation gauge in Tanggula mountain,” Plateau Meteorology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 452–459, 2014 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  38. D. Yang, Y. Shi, E. Kang, Y. Zhang, and X. Yang, “Results of solid precipitation measurement intercomparison in the alpine area of Urumqi River Basin,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 13, pp. 1105–1109, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  39. B. E. Goodison, P. Y. T. Louie, and D. Yang, “The WMO solid precipitation measurement intercomparison,” World Meteorological Organization—Publications—WMO TD, pp. 65–70, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  40. F. S. Boudala, G. A. Isaac, R. Rasmussen, S. G. Cober, and B. Scott, “Comparisons of snowfall measurements in complex terrain made during the 2010 winter Olympics in Vancouver,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 171, no. 1-2, pp. 113–127, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus