Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2020379, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2020379
Research Article

An Observational and Model Characterization of Vertical Structure of Wind Fields over Eastern United States: A Case Study of Sterling, Virginia

1Atmospheric Science Program, Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation, Howard University, 2355 6TH Street NW, Washington, DC 20059, USA
2Department of Physics, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (JCET), University of Maryland, Baltimore Campus, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Room 424, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
3College of Online and Continuing Education, Southern New Hampshire University, 33 South Commercial Street, Manchester, NH 03101, USA

Received 7 June 2015; Revised 30 September 2015; Accepted 30 September 2015

Academic Editor: Luis Gimeno

Copyright © 2016 Sium Gebremariam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Sheffield, A. P. Barrett, B. Colle et al., “North American Climate in CMIP5 experiments. Part I. Evaluation of historical simulations of continental and regional climatology,” Journal of Climate, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 9209–9245, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Sheffield, S. J. Camargo, R. Fu et al., “North American climate in CMIP5 experiments. Part II: evaluation of historical simulations of intraseasonal to decadal variability,” Journal of Climate, vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 9247–9290, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. J. Bracegirdle, E. Shuckburgh, J.-B. Sallee et al., “Assessment of surface winds over the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean in CMIP5 models: historical bias, forcing response, and state dependence,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 547–562, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. K. Betts, M. Zhao, P. A. Dirmeyer, and A. C. M. Beljaars, “Comparison of ERA40 and NCEP/DOE near-surface data sets with other ISLSCP-II data sets,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 111, no. 22, Article ID D22S04, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. D. Maloney, S. J. Camargo, E. Chang et al., “North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: part III: assessment of twenty-first-century projections,” Journal of Climate, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 2230–2270, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Q. Fu, C. M. Johanson, J. M. Wallace, and T. Reichler, “Enhanced mid-latitude tropospheric warming in satellite measurements,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5777, p. 1179, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Lu, G. A. Vecchi, and T. Reichler, “Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 6, Article ID L06805, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. C. M. Johanson and Q. Fu, “Hadley cell widening: model simulations versus observations,” Journal of Climate, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 2713–2725, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. J. Seidel, Q. Fu, W. J. Randel, and T. J. Reichler, “Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 21–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Woollings and M. Blackburn, “The north Atlantic jet stream under climate change and its relation to the NAO and EA patterns,” Journal of Climate, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 886–902, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Ihara and Y. Kushnir, “Change of mean midlatitude westerlies in 21st century climate simulations,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 13, Article ID L13701, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. P. Gerber, A. Butler, N. Calvo et al., “Assessing and understanding the impact of stratospheric dynamics and variability on the Earth system,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 845–859, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. R. Holton, An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, vol. 88 of International Geophysics Series, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, Mass, USA, 2004.
  14. C. L. Archer and K. Caldeira, “Historical trends in the jet streams,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 35, no. 8, Article ID L08803, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. Vautard, J. Cattiaux, P. Yiou, J.-N. Thépaut, and P. Ciais, “Northern Hemisphere atmospheric stilling partly attributed to an increase in surface roughness,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 756–761, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. B. Hande, S. T. Siems, M. J. Manton, and D. Belusic, “Observations of wind shear over the Southern Ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, no. 12, p. 12206, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. R. Rüfenacht, A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, P. Eriksson, and S. A. Buehler, “Middle-atmospheric zonal and meridional wind profiles from polar, tropical and midlatitudes with the ground-based microwave Doppler wind radiometer WIRA,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 4491–4505, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler et al., “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 437–471, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Kanamitsu, W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen et al., “The NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1631–1643, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons et al., “The ERA-interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 137, no. 656, pp. 553–597, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. I. Durre, R. S. Vose, and D. B. Wuertz, “Overview of the integrated global radiosonde archive,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 53–68, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. E. Taylor, R. J. Stouffer, and G. A. Meehl, “An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 485–498, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. D. Santer, C. Mears, C. Doutriaux et al., “Separating signal and noise in atmospheric temperature changes: the importance of timescale,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 116, no. 22, Article ID D22105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. D. J. Seidel, M. Free, and J. S. Wang, “Reexamining the warming in the tropical upper troposphere: models versus radiosonde observations,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 39, no. 22, Article ID L22701, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. M. Arblaster, G. A. Meehl, and D. J. Karoly, “Future climate change in the Southern Hemisphere: competing effects of ozone and greenhouse gases,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 38, no. 2, Article ID L02701, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. E. Taylor, “Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 106, no. 7, Article ID 2000JD900719, pp. 7183–7192, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. D. Santer, T. M. L. Wigley, J. S. Boyle et al., “Statistical significance of trends and trend differences in layer-average atmospheric temperature time series,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 7337–7356, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. C. Weatherhead, G. C. Reinsel, G. C. Tiao et al., “Factors affecting the detection of trends: statistical considerations and applications to environmental data,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 103, no. 14, pp. 17149–17161, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. N. Whiteman, K. C. Vermeesch, L. D. Oman, and E. C. Weatherhead, “The relative importance of random error and observation frequency in detecting trends in upper tropospheric water vapor,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 116, no. 21, Article ID D21118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Reichler and J. Kim, “Uncertainties in the climate mean state of global observations, reanalyses, and the GFDL climate model,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 1984–2012, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  31. G. A. Meehl, J. M. Arblaster, and C. Tebaldi, “Understanding future patterns of increased precipitation intensity in climate model simulations,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 18, Article ID L18719, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. A. Stainforth, M. R. Allen, E. R. Tredger, and L. A. Smith, “Confidence, uncertainty and decision-support relevance in climate predictions,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 365, no. 1857, pp. 2145–2161, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. M. Uppala, P. W. Kallberg, A. J. Simmons et al., “The ERA-40 reanalysis,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 131, no. 612, pp. 2961–3012, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. L. Bengtsson, S. Hagemann, and K. I. Hodges, “Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data?” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 109, no. 11, Article ID D11111, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. J. Marshall, “Trends in Antarctic geopotential height and temperature: a comparison between radiosonde and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data,” Journal of Climate, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 659–674, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Sterl, “On the (in)homogeneity of reanalysis products,” Journal of Climate, vol. 17, no. 19, pp. 3866–3873, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. C. Weatherhead, A. J. Stevermer, and B. E. Schwartz, “Detecting environmental changes and trends,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 27, no. 6–8, pp. 399–403, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus