Advances in Meteorology / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

1600 AD Huaynaputina Eruption (Peru), Abrupt Cooling, and Epidemics in China and Korea

Table 1

Historical records of the abrupt cooling and epidemics in southern China in 1601 AD.

County, provinceDescriptionSource

Wuzhen, Hangzhou, Huzhou, Tongxiang, and Nanxun, Zhejiang ProvinceWanli Reign Period, 29th year (February 3, 1601 AD–January 22, 1602 AD): it was chilly in the 6th month (June 30–July 28, 1601 AD). People took on double layered and cotton clothes. It was said that there was a heavy snow in the mountains of the Fuyang County, and the county sheriff took a tank of snow and submitted it to the province governor. It was also said that there was significant snowfall in the mountains of Hangzhou Prefecture. It turned hot in the 7th month (July 29–August 27, 1601 AD) and was still hot in the 8-9th months (August 28–October 25, 1601 AD). People even soaked in water in order to keep cool. Most of the families were hit by epidemics.Le Li, Notes on Experience (Jian wen za ji) (circa 1610).
Similar records are found in local gazetteers, including
① Yun Zheng et al., Gazetteer of the Hangzhou Prefecture (Hangzhou fu zhi) (1779), Vol. 56,
② Yuanhan Zong and Shichang Guo, Gazetteer of the Huzhou Prefecture (Huzhou fu zhi) (1874), Vol.44,
③ Chen Yan, Gazetteer of the Tongxiang County (Tongxiang xian zhi) (1887), Vol. 20.,
④ Rizhen Wang, Gazetteer of the Nanxun Town (Nanxun zhen zhi) (1859), Vol. 19.

Shidai County (modern Shitai County, Anhui Province) 29th year (of the Wanli Reign Period)…, in the 6th month of this summer (June 30–July 28, 1601 AD); it was very cold. All the people took on cotton coats. Snow fell and piled up in the remote mountains. It turned hot in the 7th month (July 29–August 27, 1601 AD) and was still hot in the 8th month (August 28–September 25, 1601 AD). Most of the people fell ill in the Wu and Yue areas (including Zhejiang Province, Shanghai Municipality, and southern Jiangsu Province) and the areas to the north and south of the Yangtze River.Zizhuang Yao and Tiyuan Zhou, Gazetteer of the Shidai County (Shidai xian zhi) (1675), Vol. 2.

Songjiang county, Shanghai MunicipalityXinchou year (i.e., the 29th year of the Wanli Reign Period) 6th month, 17th day (July 16, 1601 AD): it poured all day and all night. A flood destroyed the crops in the northern area of the county. It suddenly turned freezing cold. It was said that there was more than one chi (1 chi ≈ 0.3 m) of snow in Fuyang County, Hangzhou Prefecture.Yuegong Fang and Jiru Chen, Gazetteer of the Songjiang Prefecture (Songjiang fu zhi) (1630), Vol. 47.

Kunming, Yunnan9th month (September 26–October 25, 1601 AD): there was a heavy snowfall.Chengxun Fan and Jiwen Wang, General Gazetteer of Yunnan Province (Yunnan tong zhi) (1691), Vol. 28.

Ninggang, JiangxiA great epidemic. Nearly half of the people were killed.Yuda Chen, Gazetteer of Yongning County (Yongning xian zhi) (1683), Vol. 1.

Xingguo, JiangxiA great drought and epidemic.Shangyuan Zhang, Gazetteer of the Lianzhui County (Lianshui zhi lin) (1711), Vol. 15.

Shicheng, JiangxiA great epidemic.Yaojing Guo, Gazetteer of Shicheng County (Shicheng xian zhi) (1660), Vol. 8.

Dayu, JiangxiThere was a great epidemic in this year.Yinchang Chen, Gazetteer of the Dayu County (Dayu xian zhi) (1874), Vol. 24.

Nankang, Jiangxi4th month (May 2–May 31, 1601 AD): a great epidemic.Ziyun Qiu, Gazetteer of the Nankang County (Nankang xian zhi) (1936), Vol. 10.

Liancheng, FujianA great epidemic.Shijin Du, Gazetteer of the Liancheng County (Liancheng xian zhi) (1666), Vol. 1.

Xinhua, HunanWhen autumn came, there were drought and epidemic.Xiaolong Yu and Wenzhu Yang, Gazetteer of the Xinhua County (Xinhua xian zhi) (1668), Vol. 11.

Guizhou Province4th month (May 2–May 31, 1601 AD): no rain. 5th month (June 1–June 29th, 1601 AD): a great famine… 7th month (July 29th–August 27th, 1601 AD): a great epidemic.Shenji Cao and Xun Pan, General Gazetteer of Guizhou Province (Guizhou tong zhi) (1673), Vol. 27.

Counties with abrupt cooling. Counties with epidemics.