Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2016, Article ID 5935430, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5935430
Research Article

Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling Framework

1Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Linnégatan 87 D, 115 23 Stockholm, Sweden
2Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Kräftriket 2B, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
3Spatial Sciences Laboratory, Texas A&M University, 1500 Research Parkway, College Station, TX 77801, USA

Received 24 June 2015; Revised 8 December 2015; Accepted 15 December 2015

Academic Editor: Christophe Cudennec

Copyright © 2016 Yihun T. Dile et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. CA, “Water for food water for life,” in A Comprehensive Assessment for Water Management in Agriculture, Earthscan, and Colombo: International Water Management Institute, London, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. P. J. M. Cooper, J. Dimes, K. P. C. Rao, B. Shapiro, B. Shiferaw, and S. Twomlow, “Coping better with current climatic variability in the rain-fed farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa: an essential first step in adapting to future climate change?” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 126, no. 1-2, pp. 24–35, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. H. Cheung, G. B. Senay, and A. Singh, “Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 1723–1734, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. Degefu, “Some Aspects of meteorological drought in Ethiopia,” in Drought and Hunger in Africa: Denying Famine a Future, pp. 23–36, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  5. Ethiopian National Meteorological Services Agency, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, ENMSA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2001.
  6. E. Meze-Hausken, “Contrasting climate variability and meteorological drought with perceived drought and climate change in northern Ethiopia,” Climate Research, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 19–31, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. IPCC, “Summary for policymakers,” in Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, C. B. Field, V. Barros, T. F. Stocker et al., Eds., pp. 1–19, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. W. Bewket and E. Teferi, “Assessment of soil erosion hazard and prioritization for treatment at the watershed level: case study in the Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia,” Land Degradation and Development, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 609–622, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Herweg and E. Ludi, “The performance of selected soil and water conservation measures—case studies from Ethiopia and Eritrea,” Catena, vol. 36, no. 1-2, pp. 99–114, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. G. Setegn, R. Srinivasan, B. Dargahi, and A. M. Melesse, “Spatial delineation of soil erosion vulnerability in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 23, no. 26, pp. 3738–3750, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Melesse, W. Abtew, T. Dessalegne, and X. Wang, “Low and high flow analyses and wavelet application for characterization of the Blue Nile River system,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 241–252, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. M. Douglas, A. Beltrán-Przekurat, D. Niyogi, R. A. Pielke Sr., and C. J. Vörösmarty, “The impact of agricultural intensification and irrigation on land-atmosphere interactions and Indian monsoon precipitation—a mesoscale modeling perspective,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 67, no. 1-2, pp. 117–128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Hoff, “Global water resources and their management,” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. van der Ent, H. H. G. Savenije, B. Schaefli, and S. C. Steele-Dunne, “Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents,” Water Resources Research, vol. 46, no. 9, Article ID W09525, pp. 1–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. J. A. Foley, N. Ramankutty, K. A. Brauman et al., “Solutions for a cultivated planet,” Nature, vol. 478, no. 7369, pp. 337–342, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. IAASTD, International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development: Summary for Decision Makers of the Sub-Saharan Africa Report, Assessment, International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2009.
  17. D. N. Pandey, A. K. Gupta, and D. M. Anderson, “Rainwater harvesting as an adaptation to climate change,” Current Science, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 46–59, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Rosegrant, X. Cai, S. Cline, and N. Nakagawa, The Role of Rainfed Agriculture in the Future of Global Food Production, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
  19. J. Barron, J. Rockström, F. Gichuki, and N. Hatibu, “Dry spell analysis and maize yields for two semi-arid locations in east Africa,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 117, no. 1-2, pp. 23–37, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. T. Dile, L. Karlberg, M. Temesgen, and J. Rockström, “The role of water harvesting to achieve sustainable agricultural intensification and resilience against water related shocks in sub-Saharan Africa,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 181, pp. 69–79, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Fox and J. Rockström, “Supplemental irrigation for dry-spell mitigation of rainfed agriculture in the Sahel,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 29–50, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. N. Ngigi, “What is the limit of up-scaling rainwater harvesting in a river basin?” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 28, pp. 943–956, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Reij, G. Tappan, and M. Smale, “Agroenvironmental transformation in the Sahel: another kind of ‘green revolution’,” IFPRI Discussion Paper 00914, Food Policy, Washington, DC, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  24. J. Rockström, J. Barron, and P. Fox, “Rainwater management for increased productivity among small-holder farmers in drought prone environments,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 27, no. 11-22, pp. 949–959, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Vohland and B. Barry, “A review of in situ rainwater harvesting (RWH) practices modifying landscape functions in African drylands,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 131, no. 3-4, pp. 119–127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Moges, H. Hengsdijk, and H. C. Jansen, “Review and quantitative assessment of ex situ household rainwater harvesting systems in Ethiopia,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1215–1227, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Rockström, “Water resources management in smallholder farms in Eastern and Southern Africa: an overview,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 275–283, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Rockström, “Resilience building and water demand management for drought mitigation,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 28, no. 20–27, pp. 869–877, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Rockström, L. Karlberg, S. P. Wani et al., “Managing water in rainfed agriculture—the need for a paradigm shift,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 543–550, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. G. Senay and J. P. Verdin, “Developing index maps of water-harvesting potential in Africa,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 20, pp. 789–799, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  31. J. Barron and G. Okwach, “Run-off water harvesting for dry spell mitigation in maize (Zea mays L.): results from on-farm research in semi-arid Kenya,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Hatibu and J. Rockström, “Green-blue water system innovations for upgrading of smallholder farming systems—a policy framework for development,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 121–131, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Liniger, R. M. Studer, C. Hauert, and M. Gurtner, Sustainable Land Management in Practice: Guidlines and Best Management Practices for Sub-Saharan Africa, Management, FAO, Rome, Italy, 2011.
  34. J. Rockström and J. Barron, “Water productivity in rainfed systems: overview of challenges and analysis of opportunities in water scarcity prone savannahs,” Irrigation Science, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 299–311, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Falkenmark and J. Rockstrom, Balancing Water for Humans and Nature: The New Approach in Ecohydrology, Earthscan, London, UK, 2004.
  36. A. Y. Hoekstra, M. M. Mekonnen, A. K. Chapagain, R. E. Mathews, and B. D. Richter, “Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e32688, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Rockström, M. Falkenmark, L. Karlberg, H. Hoff, S. Rost, and D. Gerten, “Future water availability for global food production: the potential of green water for increasing resilience to global change,” Water Resources Research, vol. 45, no. 7, Article ID W00A12, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. H. G. Savenije, “The runoff coefficient as the key to moisture recycling,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 176, no. 1–4, pp. 219–225, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. M. Kahinda, E. S. B. Lillie, A. E. Taigbenu, M. Taute, and R. J. Boroto, “Developing suitability maps for rainwater harvesting in South Africa,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 33, no. 8–13, pp. 788–799, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Mati, D. B. Tanguy, M. Maimbo et al., “Mapping the potential of rainwater harvesting technologies in Africa: a GIS overview on development domains for the continent and ten selected countries,” Tech. Rep., World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nairobi, Kenya, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  41. B. P. Mbilinyi, S. D. Tumbo, H. F. Mahoo, and F. O. Mkiramwinyi, “GIS-based decision support system for identifying potential sites for rainwater harvesting,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, vol. 32, no. 15-18, pp. 1074–1081, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. De Winnaar, G. P. W. Jewitt, and M. Horan, “A GIS-based approach for identifying potential runoff harvesting sites in the Thukela River basin, South Africa,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 32, no. 15–18, pp. 1058–1067, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Uhlenbrook, S. Roser, and N. Tilch, “Hydrological process representation at the meso-scale: the potential of a distributed, conceptual catchment model,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 291, no. 3-4, pp. 278–296, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. BCEOM, Abbay River Basin Integrated Development Master Plan Project, BCEOM, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1998.
  45. D. Conway, “The climate and hydrology of the Upper Blue Nile river,” Geographical Journal, vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 49–62, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. Bewket and D. Conway, “A note on the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall in the drought-prone Amhara region of Ethiopia,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1467–1477, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Seleshi and P. Camberlin, “Recent changes in dry spell and extreme rainfall events in Ethiopia,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 83, no. 1–4, pp. 181–191, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. CSA, Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census, Population Census Commission, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2008.
  49. IFAD, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Country Program Evaluation, 2009.
  50. World Bank, Ethiopia: Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  51. H. Rämi, Ethiopia: Ponds Filled with Challenges, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 2003.
  52. WorldClim, “WorldClim—Global Climate Data,” 2009, http://www.worldclim.org/.
  53. R. J. Hijmans, S. E. Cameron, J. L. Parra, P. G. Jones, and A. Jarvis, “Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 1965–1978, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Leemans and W. P. Crammer, The IIASA Database for Mean Monthly Values of Temperature, Precipitation, and Cloudiness on a Global Terrestrial Grid, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Vienna, Austria, 1991.
  55. M. New, M. Hulme, and P. Jones, “Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part I: development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology,” Journal of Climate, vol. 12, no. 2-3, pp. 829–856, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. New, D. Lister, M. Hulme, and I. Makin, “A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas,” Climate Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–25, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. CGIAR-CSI, SRTM 90 m Digital Elevation Data [WWW Document], 2012, http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/.
  58. MoWR, Land use and soil data: Ethiopian Ministry of Water Resources, 2009.
  59. FAO, World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006: A Framework for International Classification, Correlation and Communication, Rome, Italy, 2006.
  60. FAO, World Soil Resources: An Explanatory Note on the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) World Soil Resources Map at 1:25 000 00 Scale, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1995.
  61. J. R. Eastman, IDRISI 32 Release 2: Guide to GIS and Image Processing, Volume 1, Clark Labs, Clark University, Worcester, Mass, USA, 2001.
  62. W. Critchley and K. Siegert, Water Harvesting; A Manual for the Design and Construction of Water Harvesting Schemes for Plant Production, 1991.
  63. IWMI, Experiences and Opportunities for Promoting Small-Scale/Micro Irrigation and Rainwater Harvesting for Food Security in Ethiopia, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2005.
  64. D. Tilman, “Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: the need for sustainable and efficient practices,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 5995–6000, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. B. Biazin, G. Sterk, M. Temesgen, A. Abdulkedir, and L. Stroosnijder, “Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa—a review,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 48, pp. 139–151, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  66. E. Boelee, M. Yohannes, J.-N. Poda et al., “Options for water storage and rainwater harvesting to improve health and resilience against climate change in Africa,” Regional Environmental Change, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 509–519, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Munamati and I. Nyagumbo, “In situ rainwater harvesting using dead level contours in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe: insights on the role of socio-economic factors on performance and effectiveness in Gwanda District,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 35, no. 13-14, pp. 699–705, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. C. Boyd, C. Turton, N. Hatibu et al., “The contribution of soil and water conservation to sustainable livelihoods in semi-arid areas of Sub-Saharan Africa,” Network Paper 102, Agricultural Research & Extension Network, 2000. View at Google Scholar