Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2016, Article ID 8419580, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8419580
Research Article

Analysis of the Global Swell and Wind Sea Energy Distribution Using WAVEWATCH III

1Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100, China
2Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316000, China

Received 21 August 2015; Revised 3 November 2015; Accepted 26 November 2015

Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Li

Copyright © 2016 Kaiwen Zheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. Wang and R. X. Huang, “Wind energy input to the surface waves,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1276–1280, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. X. Huang and W. Wang, “Decadal variability of wind energy input to the world ocean,” Deep-Sea Research II, vol. 34, pp. 31–41, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. A. Grachev and C. W. Fairall, “Upward momentum transfer in the marine boundary layer,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1698–1711, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. A. E. M. Janssen, “Wave-induced stress and the drag of air flow over sea waves,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 745–754, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. A. Donelan, W. M. Drennan, and K. B. Katsaros, “The air-sea momentum flux in conditions of wind sea and swell,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2087–2099, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Guan and L. Guan, “On the linear parameterization of drag coefficient over sea surface,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 2847–2851, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. F. Barstow, World Wave Atlas, AVISO Newsletter no. 4, AVISO, Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France, 1996.
  8. I. R. Young, “Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 931–950, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” Journal of Climate, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1461–1479, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. K. Gulev and L. Hasse, “North Atlantic wind waves and wind stress fields from voluntary observing ship data,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1107–1130, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. F. Liu, W. Jiang, M. G. Yu et al., “An analysis on annual variation of monthly mean sea wave fields in North Pacific Ocean,” Journal of Tropical Oceanography, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 364–69, 2002 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Chen, B. Chapron, R. Ezraty, and D. Vandemark, “A global view of swell and wind sea climate in the ocean by satellite altimeter and scatterometer,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1849–1859, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. J. Pierson and L. Moskowitz, “A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 69, no. 24, pp. 5181–5190, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. Zhang, W. Wang, and C. Guan, “Analysis of the global swell distributions using ECMWF Re-analyses wind wave data,” Journal of Ocean University of China, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 325–330, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. W. Gerling, “Partitioning sequences and arrays of directional wave spectra into component wave systems,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 444–458, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. L. Hanson and O. M. Phillips, “Automated analysis of ocean surface directional wave spectra,” Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 277–293, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. L. Hanson and R. E. Jensen, “Wave system diagnostics for numerical wave models,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting, Technical Report no. 29, WMO/TD-no. 1319, Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, Oahu, Hawaii, USA, November 2004.
  18. J. L. Hanson, B. Tracy, H. Tolman, and D. Scott, “Pacific hindcast performance evaluation of three numerical wave models,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting, Victoria, Canada, September 2006.
  19. L. Vincent and P. Soille, “Watersheds in digital spaces: an efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 583–598, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Jung, E. Klinker, and S. M. Uppala, “Reanalysis and reforecast of three major European storms of the twentieth century using the ECMWF forecasting system. Part I. Analyses and deterministic forecasts,” Meteorological Applications, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 343–361, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J.-H. G. M. Alves, “Numerical modeling of ocean swell contributions to the global wind-wave climate,” Ocean Modelling, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 98–122, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Hasselmann, “The WAM model—a third generation ocean wave prediction model,” ournal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1775–1810, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. E. Hanley, S. E. Belcher, and P. P. Sullivan, “A global climatology of wind-wave interaction,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1263–1282, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Booij, R. C. Ris, and L. H. Holthuijsen, “A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation,” Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 7649–7666, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus