Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2017, Article ID 6841239, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6841239
Research Article

On the Potential of 25 Years (1991–2015) of Rawinsonde Measurements for Elucidating Climatological and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Afternoon Boundary Layer Depths over the Contiguous US

1Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN, USA
2Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Sandip Pal; ude.usp@252pus

Received 24 November 2016; Revised 27 February 2017; Accepted 26 March 2017; Published 11 June 2017

Academic Editor: Anthony R. Lupo

Copyright © 2017 Temple R. Lee and Sandip Pal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.
  2. W. F. Dabberdt, M. A. Carroll, D. Baumgardner et al., “Meteorological research needs for improved air quality forecasting: report of the 11th prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 563–586, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. R. Lee, S. F. J. de Wekker, S. Pal, A. E. Andrews, and J. Kofler, “Meteorological controls on the diurnal variability of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at a mountaintop monitoring site in the Appalachian Mountains,” Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, vol. 67, no. 1, Article ID 25659, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, E. Hammann, S. K. Muppa, and S. Pal, “Profiles of second- to fourth-order moments of turbulent temperature fluctuations in the convective boundary layer: first measurements with rotational Raman lidar,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5485–5500, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Behrendt, G. Wagner, A. Petrova et al., “Modular lidar systems for high-resolution 4-dimensional measurements of water vapor, temperature, and aerosols,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environmental Monitoring V, U. N. Singh and K. Mizutani, Eds., vol. 5653 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 220–227, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, November 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. D. J. Seidel, Y. Zhang, A. Beljaars, J.-C. Golaz, A. R. Jacobson, and B. Medeiros, “Climatology of the planetary boundary layer over the continental United States and Europe,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 17, Article ID D17106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Guo, Y. Miao, Y. Zhang et al., “The climatology of planetary boundary layer height in China derived from radiosonde and reanalysis data,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 16, no. 20, pp. 13309–13319, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. D. J. Seidel, C. O. Ao, and K. Li, “Estimating climatological planetary boundary layer heights from radiosonde observations: comparison of methods and uncertainty analysis,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 115, no. 16, Article ID D16113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Beyrich, U. Weisensee, D. Sprung, and H. Güsten, “Comparative analysis of sodar and ozone profile measurements in a complex structured boundary layer and implications for mixing height estimation,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. San José and J. Casanova, “An empirical method to evaluate the height of the convective boundary layer by using small mast measurements,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 265–273, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. E. Yver, H. D. Graven, D. D. Lucas, P. J. Cameron-Smith, R. F. Keeling, and R. F. Weiss, “Evaluating transport in the WRF model along the California coast,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1837–1852, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Bianco, I. V. Djalalova, C. W. King, and J. M. Wilczak, “Diurnal evolution and annual variability of boundary-layer height and its correlation to other meteorological variables in California’s Central Valley,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 491–511, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. F. Clifford, R. J. Lataitis, J. C. Kaimal, and R. G. Strauch, “Ground-based remote profiling in atmospheric studies: an overview,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 313–355, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Pal, M. Haeffelin, and E. Batchvarova, “Exploring a geophysical process-based attribution technique for the determination of the atmospheric boundary layer depth using aerosol lidar and near-surface meteorological measurements,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 16, pp. 9277–9295, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Seibert, F. Beyrich, S. E. Gryning, S. Joffre, A. Rasmussen, and P. Tercier, “Mixing layer depth determination for dispersion modelling, European Commission,” in COST Action 710-Final Report, Harmonisation of the Pre-Processing of Meteorological Data for Atmospheric Dispersion Models L-2985, B. E. A. Fisher, J. J. Erbrink, S. Finardi et al., Eds., Luxembourg European Commission, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  16. F. Beyrich, “Mixing height estimation from sodar data—a critical discussion,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 31, no. 23, pp. 3941–3953, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. L. McGrath-Spangler and A. S. Denning, “Estimates of North American summertime planetary boundary layer depths derived from space-borne lidar,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 117, no. 15, Article ID D15101, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 19, Article ID L19803, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Zhang, J. Guo, Y. Miao et al., “Planetary boundary layer height from CALIOP compared to radiosonde over China,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 16, no. 15, pp. 9951–9963, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Liu and X.-Z. Liang, “Observed diurnal cycle climatology of planetary boundary layer height,” Journal of Climate, vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 5790–5809, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. X. Y. Wang and K. C. Wang, “Estimation of atmospheric mixing layer height from radiosonde data,” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1701–1709, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Zhang, D. J. Seidel, and S. Zhang, “Trends in planetary boundary layer height over europe,” Journal of Climate, vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 10071–10076, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Seibert, F. Beyrich, S.-E. Gryning, S. Joffre, A. Rasmussen, and P. Tercier, “Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1001–1027, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Kottek, J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, “World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 259–263, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. R. Lee and S. F. J. De Wekker, “Estimating daytime planetary boundary layer heights over a valley from rawinsonde observations at a nearby airport: an application to the page valley in Virginia, United States,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 791–809, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. L. McGrath-Spangler and A. Molod, “Comparison of GEOS-5 AGCM planetary boundary layer depths computed with various definitions,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 6717–6727, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. Durre and X. Yin, “Enhanced radiosonde data for studies of vertical structure,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1257–1261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Wang and M. A. Geller, “Morphology of gravity-wave energy as observed from 4 years (1998–2001) of high vertical resolution U.S. radiosonde data,” Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, vol. 108, no. 16, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. M. Hondula, R. E. Davis, D. B. Knight et al., “A respiratory alert model for the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA,” International Journal of Biometeorology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 91–105, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Pal, S. F. De Wekker, and G. D. Emmitt, “Investigation of the spatial variability of the convective boundary layer heights over an isolated mountain: cases from the MATERHORN-2012 experiment,” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1927–1952, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. D. R. Bright and S. L. Mullen, “The sensitivity of the numerical simulation of the southwest monsoon boundary layer to the choice of PBL turbulence parameterization in MM5,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 99–114, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. F. J. De Wekker and M. Kossmann, “Convective boundary layer heights over mountainous terrain—a review of concepts,” Frontiers in Earth Science, vol. 3, article 77, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. M. W. Rotach and D. Zardi, “On the boundary-layer structure over highly complex terrain: key findings from MAP,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 133, no. 625, pp. 937–948, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Medeiros, A. Hall, and B. Stevens, “What controls the mean depth of the PBL?” Journal of Climate, vol. 18, no. 16, pp. 3157–3172, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. L. Mcgrath-Spangler and A. S. Denning, “Impact of entrainment from overshooting thermals on land-atmosphere interactions during summer 1999,” Tellus, Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 441–454, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. M. Chan and R. Wood, “The seasonal cycle of planetary boundary layer depth determined using COSMIC radio occultation data,” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 118, no. 22, pp. 12422–12434, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. C. Peel, B. L. Finlayson, and T. A. McMahon, “Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1633–1644, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. R. Oke, “The energetic basis of the urban heat island,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 108, no. 455, pp. 1–24, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C.-Y. Lin, F. Chen, J. C. Huang et al., “Urban heat island effect and its impact on boundary layer development and land-sea circulation over northern Taiwan,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 22, pp. 5635–5649, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Pal, I. Xueref-Remy, L. Ammoura et al., “Spatio-temporal variability of the atmospheric boundary layer depth over the Paris agglomeration: an assessment of the impact of the urban heat island intensity,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 63, pp. 261–275, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. Blay-Carreras, D. Pino, J. Vilà-Guerau De Arellano et al., “Role of the residual layer and large-scale subsidence on the development and evolution of the convective boundary layer,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 4515–4530, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. N. Koffi, P. Bergamaschi, U. Karstens et al., “Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe,” Geoscientific Model Development, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 3137–3160, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar