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Advances in Meteorology
Volume 2017, Article ID 8430743, 16 pages
Research Article

The Effect of the Dry Line and Convective Initiation on Drought Evolution over Oklahoma during the 2011 Drought

1School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA
2Oklahoma Climatological Survey, Norman, OK, USA
3Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Paul X. Flanagan; ude.uo@11fxp

Received 7 February 2017; Accepted 9 May 2017; Published 4 July 2017

Academic Editor: Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero

Copyright © 2017 Paul X. Flanagan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations were used to evaluate the effect that the dry line and large-scale atmospheric patterns had on drought evolution during 2011. Mesonet observations showed that a “dry” and “wet” pattern developed across Oklahoma due to anomalous atmospheric patterns. The location of the dry line varied due to this “dry” and “wet” pattern, with the average dry line location around 1.5° longitude further to the east than climatology. Model simulations were used to further quantify the impact of variable surface conditions on dry line evolution and convective initiation (CI) during April and May 2011. Specifically, soil moisture conditions were altered to depict “wet” and “dry” conditions across the domain by replacing the soil moisture values by each soil category’s porosity or wilting point value. Overall, the strength of the dry line boundary, its position, and subsequent CI were dependent on the modification of soil moisture. The simulations demonstrated that modifying soil moisture impacted the nature of the dry line and showed that soil moisture conditions during the first half of the warm season modified the dry line pattern and influenced the evolution and perpetuation of drought over Oklahoma.