Advances in Meteorology https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2019 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Quantitative Analysis of Water Vapor Transport during Mei-Yu Front Rainstorm Period over the Tibetan Plateau and Yangtze-Huai River Basin Sun, 25 Aug 2019 00:05:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/6029027/ There are continuous precipitation systems moving eastward from the Tibetan Plateau to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze-Huai River during the Mei-yu period. We selected 20 typical Mei-yu front precipitation cases from 2010 to 2015 based on observational and reanalysis data and studied the characteristics of their environmental fields. We quantitatively analyzed the transport and sources of water vapor in the rainstorms using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT_4.9) model. All 20 Mei-yu front precipitation cases occurred in a wide region from the Tibetan Plateau to the Yangtze-Huai River. The South Asian high and upper level jet stream both had strong intensities during the Mei-yu front rainstorm periods. Heavy rainfall mainly occurred in the divergence zone to the right of the high-level jet and in the convergence zone of the low-level jet, where strong vertical upward flows provided the dynamic conditions required for heavy rainfall. The water vapor mainly originated from the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, and South China Sea. 52% of the air masses over the western Tibetan Plateau originated from Central Asia, which were rich in water vapor. The water vapor contribution at the initial position was only 41.5% due to the dry, cold air mass over Eurasia, but increased to 47.6% at the final position. Over the eastern Tibetan Plateau to the Sichuan Basin region, 40% of the air parcels came from the Indian Ocean, which was the main channel for water vapor transport. For the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, 37% of the air parcels originated from the warm and humid Indian Ocean. The water vapor contribution at the initial position was 38.6%, but increased to 40.2% after long-distance transportation. Hao Yang, Guan-yu Xu, Xiaofang Wang, Chunguang Cui, Jingyu Wang, and Dengxin He Copyright © 2019 Hao Yang et al. All rights reserved. Increase of Extreme Drought over Ethiopia under Climate Warming Sun, 25 Aug 2019 00:05:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/5235429/ Recurrent extreme drought and flood in Ethiopia lead to more economic loss. This study examines change and trends of 21 climate extremes of temperature and precipitation over Ethiopia by using indices from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The analysis was based on the records of observed meteorological data and the future projected from the CMIP5 model under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The results of the seasonal standardized rainfall anomaly and EOF analysis show a decreasing rainfall in JJAS season and significant variability in the FMAM season. The first mode of EOF in FMAM shows that 49.6% was mostly negative with a high amount of variability. The observed precipitation extreme of annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), consecutive wet days (CWD), and the number of heavy precipitation days (R10) show a decreasing trend, and consecutive dry days (CDD) shows an increasing trend. Additionally, temperature extremes like tropical nights (TR20) and daily maximum and minimum temperatures show a significantly increasing trend. The projected precipitation extremes of CWD, PRCPTOT, very wet day annual total (R95p), and the number of heavy precipitation days (R10) show a decreasing trend. CDD shows longer periods of dryness and a substantial increase which is conducive to the increase of drought. The projected temperature extremes of the warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), daily maximum temperature (TXx) and daily minimum temperature (TNx), summer days (SU25), and tropical nights (TR20) show an increasing trend, while the diurnal temperature range shows a decreasing trend. The projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes are likely to have significant negative impacts on various socioeconomic activities over Ethiopia. These results highlight the need for planning and developing effective adaptation strategies for disaster prevention. Asaminew Teshome and Jie Zhang Copyright © 2019 Asaminew Teshome and Jie Zhang. All rights reserved. Impacts of Different Physical Parameterization Configurations on Widespread Heavy Rain Forecast over the Northern Area of Vietnam in WRF-ARW Model Sun, 18 Aug 2019 08:05:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/1010858/ This study investigates the impacts of different physical parameterization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the ARW dynamical core (WRF-ARW model) on the forecasts of heavy rainfall over the northern part of Vietnam (Bac Bo area). Various physical model configurations generated from different typical cumulus, shortwave radiation, and boundary layer and from simple to complex cloud microphysics schemes are examined and verified for the cases of extreme heavy rainfall during 2012–2016. It is found that the most skilled forecasts come from the Kain–Fritsch (KF) scheme. However, relating to the different causes of the heavy rainfall events, the forecast cycles using the Betts–Miller–Janjic (BMJ) scheme show better skills for tropical cyclones or slowly moving surface low-pressure system situations compared to KF scheme experiments. Most of the sensitivities to KF scheme experiments are related to boundary layer schemes. Both configurations using KF or BMJ schemes show that more complex cloud microphysics schemes can also improve the heavy rain forecast with the WRF-ARW model for the Bac Bo area of Vietnam. Tien Du Duc, Cuong Hoang Duc, Lars Robert Hole, Lam Hoang, Huyen Luong Thi Thanh, and Hung Mai Khanh Copyright © 2019 Tien Du Duc et al. All rights reserved. Meteorological Temperature and Humidity Prediction from Fourier-Statistical Analysis of Hourly Data Sun, 18 Aug 2019 07:05:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/4164097/ The temperature readings for all the 365 days and the 24 hours may be fitted through a 3 × 3 matrix (the so-called T-matrix). The mean square deviation between this fit and the actual meteorological measurements is smaller than three degrees Celsius. Four entries of this (nonsymmetric) matrix may be fixed by other means, leaving only five independent components. However, the same method applied to the humidity measurements produces a larger mean square deviation. A strong stochastical connection is found between the T-temperature matrix and the U-humidity matrix. The computer program, in C, may be used to adjust a (2M + 1) × (2m + 1) matrix simply by changing the arguments at the command line and has been tested with m and M ranging from zero to 11 (eleven) (more than 24 readings per day are necessary for larger values of m). The physical meaning of these constants is given only in the case m = M = 1. Our results have also been connected to fundamental cosmological properties: Earth’s orbit, the ecliptic angle, and the latitude of Querétaro (or whatever geographical location is chosen). A separate program calculates the angular position of the Sun as measured in the sky of Querétaro, to determine the length of the day or the mean value of the solar cosine. This work introduces several new variables which happen to be stochastically connected. Alejandro Castañeda-Miranda, M. de Icaza-Herrera, and Víctor M. Castaño Copyright © 2019 Alejandro Castañeda-Miranda et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Change Characteristics of and Population Exposure to Heatwave Events on the North China Plain Sun, 18 Aug 2019 07:05:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/7069195/ In accordance with the China Meteorological Administration definition, this study considered a weather process with a maximum surface temperature of ≥35°C for more than three consecutive days as a heatwave event. Based on a dataset of daily maximum temperatures from meteorological stations on the North China Plain, including ordinary and national basic/reference surface stations, the intensity-area-duration method was used to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of heatwave events on the North China Plain (1961–2017). Moreover, based on demographic data from the Statistical Yearbook and Greenhouse Gas Initiative (GGI) Population Scenario Database of the Austrian Institute for International Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), population exposure to heatwave events was also studied. The results showed that the frequency, intensity, and area of impact of heatwave events on the North China Plain initially decreased (becoming weaker and less extensive) and then increased (becoming stronger and more extensive). Similarly, the trend of population exposure to heatwave events initially decreased and then increased, and the central position of exposure initially moved southward and then returned northward. Population exposure in the eastern Taihang Mountains was found significantly higher than in the western Taihang Mountains. In relation to the change of population exposure to heatwave events on the North China Plain, the influence of climatic factors was found dominant with an absolute contribution rate of >75%. Except for 2011–2017, increase in population also increased the exposure to heatwaves, particularly in the first half of the study period. Interaction between climatic and population factors generally had less impact on population exposure than either climatic factors or population factors alone. This study demonstrated a method for assessing the impact of heatwave events on population exposure, which could form a scientific basis for the development of government policy regarding adaption to climate change. Long-Fei Zhan, Yanjun Wang, Hemin Sun, Jianqing Zhai, and Mingjin Zhan Copyright © 2019 Long-Fei Zhan et al. All rights reserved. Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change Trends and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Highlands of Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia Thu, 15 Aug 2019 10:05:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/3849210/ This study examined smallholder farmers’ perception about climate change and variability compared with the observed metrological data and their adaptation strategies in response to the perceived impacts of climate change. The multistage sampling method was employed to select 358 rural farmers in Hawzen and Irob districts located in semiarid highlands of Eastern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Moreover, areal gridded surface monthly rainfall and temperature data between 1983 and 2015 were collected from National Meteorology Agency of Ethiopia. The results revealed that about 98.56 and 92 percent of farmers perceived a decrease in annual rainfall. In addition, 87 and 90 percent of farmers noticed that temperature was increased in Hawzen and Irob districts, respectively. Harmoniously, the modified Mann–Kendall trend test confirmed that annual rainfall was decreased by 32.38 mm and 121.33 mm during the period of analysis. Furthermore, mean annual temperature increased statistically significant () by about 0.40°C and 0.39°C per decade during the period of analysis cognate with the farmers’ perception. To reduce the perceived impacts of climate change, farmers adopted various farm-level adaptation strategies that vary significantly between the two groups. Soil and water conservation, planting trees, crop varieties, changing crop calendar, biological conservation, and irrigation were among the dominant adaptation strategies, respectively, in the study area. The results of this study provide baseline information for local governments, subsequent researchers, and policy-makers in terms of farmers’ perception of climate change and adaptation strategies. Hailay Tsigab Kahsay, Dawit Diriba Guta, Belay Simane Birhanu, and Tagel Gebrehiwot Gidey Copyright © 2019 Hailay Tsigab Kahsay et al. All rights reserved. Spatiotemporal Changes and Frequency Analysis of Multiday Extreme Precipitation in the Huai River Basin during 1960 to 2014 Wed, 14 Aug 2019 07:05:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/6324878/ Floods and droughts are more closely related to the extreme precipitation over longer periods of time. The spatial and temporal changes and frequency analysis of 5-day and 10-day extreme precipitations (PX5D and PX10D) in the Huai River basin (HRB) are investigated by means of correlation analysis, trend and abrupt change analysis, EOF analysis, and hydrological frequency analysis based on the daily precipitation data from 1960 to 2014. The results indicate (1) PX5D and PX10D indices have a weak upward trend in HRB, and the weak upward trend may be due to the significant downward trend in the 21st century, (2) the multiday (5-day and 10-day) extreme precipitation is closely associated with flood/drought disasters in the HRB, and (3) for stations of nonstationary changes with significant upward trend after the abrupt change, if the whole extreme precipitation series are used for frequency analysis, the risk of future floods will be underestimated, and this effect is more pronounced for longer return periods. Yixing Yin, Xin Pan, Xiuqin Yang, Xiaojun Wang, Guojie Wang, and Shanlei Sun Copyright © 2019 Yixing Yin et al. All rights reserved. Atmospheric Sounding from Fengyun-3C GPS Radio Occultation Observations: First Results and Validation Sun, 04 Aug 2019 10:05:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/4780143/ Carrying global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receiver, Chinese meteorological satellite Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) was launched on September 23, 2013, which provides new observation data for observations and studies of weather and climate change. In this paper, the results of FY-3C GPS RO atmospheric sounding are presented for the first time, including high-order ionospheric correction, atmospheric parameters estimation, and evaluation by COSMIC and radiosonde observations as well as applications in estimating gravity wave activities. It is found that the effect of the ionospheric correction residual on the phase delay is below 20 mm, which has minimal impact on bending angle estimation and generates differences of about 1 K in the average temperature profile. The difference between FY-3C and COSMIC temperatures at all heights is within 1°C, and the tropopause temperature and height have a good consistency. Deviations from Radiosonde measurements are within 2°C, and the tropopause temperature and height results also have a strong consistency. Furthermore, global gravity wave potential energy is estimated from FY-3C GPS RO, exhibiting similar behavior to results derived from COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The mean value of the gravity wave potential energy near the equator is 10 J/kg and decreases toward the two poles while in the northern hemisphere, it is stronger than that in the southern hemisphere. Shuanggen Jin, Chao Gao, and Junhai Li Copyright © 2019 Shuanggen Jin et al. All rights reserved. Typhoon Cloud System Identification and Forecasting Using the Feng-Yun 4A/Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager Based on an Improved Fuzzy Clustering and Optical Flow Method Wed, 31 Jul 2019 14:05:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/5890794/ This study adopted an improved fuzzy clustering and optical flow method for the multiscale identification and forecasting of a cloud system based on the cloud images from a 10.8-micron infrared channel of the Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager. First, we used the locally constrained fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering method to identify typhoon-dominant cloud systems. Second, we coupled the background field-constrained optical flow method with the semi-Lagrangian scheme to forecast typhoon-dominant cloud systems. The experimental results for Typhoon Maria showed that the improved FCM method was able to effectively identify changes in the cloud system while retaining its edge information through the effective removal of the offset field. The identified dominant cloud system was consistent with the precipitation field of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission. We optimized the semi-Lagrangian nonlinear extrapolation of the optical flow field by introducing background field information, thus improving the forecast accuracy of the optical flow field. Based on the assessment indicators of structural similarity, normalized mutual information, peak signal-to-noise ratio, relative standard deviation, and root mean square error, the forecast results demonstrated that the forecast effect of the background field-constrained optical flow method was better than that of the standard optical flow method. Gen Wang, Dongyong Wang, Wei Han, and Jian Yin Copyright © 2019 Gen Wang et al. All rights reserved. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Air Pollution Characteristics in Jiangsu Province, China Wed, 31 Jul 2019 09:05:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/5907673/ Following the deepening of climate change and the increasing industrialization in recent years, the problem of air pollution in cities has become increasingly prominent. Based on the data of air pollutants and meteorological elements in Jiangsu Province, China (2013–2017), we analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of air pollution. The results show that the air-quality index (AQI) in Jiangsu Province decreased from 2013 to 2017 and the highest AQI is in winter and the lowest in the summer, while its values in coastal cities of Jiangsu are less than those of inland cities. For the temporal distribution of primary pollutants, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO present the same trend under seasonal and monthly time scales, i.e., winter is higher and summer is lower; however, the other secondary pollutant, O3, presents opposite characteristics under the same time scale: it has higher concentration levels in summer and lower in winter. For the spatial distribution, PM2.5 and PM10 are in good concord: the higher values are found in the west of Jiangsu Province and lower in the east. For the spatial distribution of NO2, this presents higher concentrations in south and lower concentrations in north according to the position of Yangzi River, while the distribution of O3 concentration is opposite to that of NO2. The meteorological elements selected are related to air pollution, the AQI is significantly negatively correlated with monthly temperature (including average, minimum, and maximum temperatures), monthly average water vapor pressure, monthly precipitation, and monthly sunshine duration; the correlation coefficients are –0.852, –0.846, –0.850, –0.797, –0.727, and –0.599, respectively. As far as the relationships between air pollutions are concerned, there is a significant positive correlation between AQI, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2, while O3 is remarkably negatively correlated with other pollutants and AQI. The most prominent correlations are distinguished into two groups: one is AQI, PM2.5, and PM10, with correlation coefficients of 0.876 and 0.966, and the other is SO2, NO2, with correlation coefficient of about 0.9. Rong Song, Liumei Yang, Mengyuan Liu, Can Li, and Yanrong Yang Copyright © 2019 Rong Song et al. All rights reserved. Use of the C-Band Microwave Link to Distinguish between Rainy and Dry Periods Sun, 21 Jul 2019 08:05:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/3428786/ As a method that does not require additional cost, precipitation measurement by microwave links (MLs) has quickly attracted the attention of experts in meteorological, hydrological, and other related fields, of which wet-dry classification by MLs is one of the most important methods. Considering that existing commercial MLs are usually single-path, single-polarization, or low-frequency MLs, this paper uses the C-band ML and analyzes the variation in the receive signal level (RSL) of the C-band ML under the conditions of no rain, drizzle, light rain, and moderate rain. The RSL data are analyzed at different time scales by using long short-term memory (LSTM) network techniques, and then the method for distinguishing parts of the precipitation period by using the RSL from low-frequency MLs is proposed and validated. The results show that wet-dry classification is ideal. The accuracy on each day was higher than 60%, and some days had accuracies that were even higher than 98%. MLs below 10 GHz also had the potential to monitor ground rainfall. This study will broaden the range of available equipment for MLs for precipitation measurement. Binsheng He, Xichuan Liu, Shuai Hu, Kun Song, and Taichang Gao Copyright © 2019 Binsheng He et al. All rights reserved. Associated Determinants of Surface Urban Heat Islands across 1449 Cities in China Sun, 21 Jul 2019 07:05:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/4892714/ The thermal environment is closely related to human well-being. Determinants of surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, some research fields remain blank or have conflicting findings, which need to be further addressed. Particularly, few studies focus on drivers of SUHIs in massive cities with different sizes under various contexts at large scales. Using multisource data, we explored 11 determinants of surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) for 1449 cities in different ecological contexts throughout China in 2010, adopting the Spearman and partial correlation analysis and machine learning method. The main results were as follows: (1) Significant positive partial correlations existed between daytime SUHII and the differences in nighttime light intensity and built-up intensity between cities and their corresponding villages except in arid or semiarid western China. The differences in the enhanced vegetation index were generally partially negatively correlated with daytime and nighttime SUHII. The differences in white sky albedo were usually partially negatively correlated with nighttime SUHII. The mean air temperature was partially positively correlated with nighttime SUHII in 40% of cases. Only a few significant partial relationships existed between SUHII and urban area, total population, and differences in aerosol optical depth. The explanation rates during daytime were larger than during nighttime in 72% of cases. The largest and smallest rates occurred during summer days in humid cold northeastern China (63.84%) and in southern China (10.44%), respectively. (2) Both the daytime and nighttime SUHII could be well determined by drivers using the machine learning method. The RMSE ranged from 0.49°C to 1.54°C at a national scale. The simulation SUHII values were always significantly correlated with the actual SUHII values. The simulation accuracies were always higher during nighttime than daytime. The highest accuracies occurred in central-northern China and were lowest in western China during both daytime and nighttime. Yuanzheng Li, Lan Wang, Min Liu, Guosong Zhao, Tian He, and Qizheng Mao Copyright © 2019 Yuanzheng Li et al. All rights reserved. Climate Change Characteristics of Extreme Temperature in the Minjiang River Basin Sun, 14 Jul 2019 12:05:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/1935719/ Based on the daily temperature data from 26 meteorological stations in the Minjiang River Basin, for 1961 to 2016, the temporal trend and spatial distribution of extreme temperature in this region were analyzed using 16 extreme temperature indices. The results show that in terms of time variation, determined using linear trend analysis and a Mann–Kendall trend test, the warm and day indices mainly show an upward trend while the cold and night indices mainly show a downward trend in the entire basin. Among them, FD0, TN10, and CSDI significantly decrease at −1.3, −2.9, and −1.1 d/10a, respectively. TN90, TX90, SU25, and TR20 significantly increase at 3.0, 2.6, 2.1, and 2.2 d/10a, respectively. The crop growth period in the basin showed a significant increasing trend at 1.4 days/decade, while the diurnal temperature range showed a nonsignificant increasing trend at 0.03 days/decade. On comparing the change range of each index, it was found that the change range of the warm index is greater than that of the cold index, while the change range of the day index is smaller than that of the night index; thus, the change trends of the maximum and minimum temperatures in the whole basin are not obvious. Analysis of the changing trend at each station showed that the relative index of the extreme temperature in the basin has good climatic consistency in terms of spatial distribution. The distributions of the absolute and extreme indices are not uniform, which is consistent with the change in elevation in the basin. Further, the diurnal temperature range in the upper reaches of the basin is greater than that in the middle and lower reaches. However, because of the more obvious upward trends of the day and warm indices in the middle and lower reaches, and the more obvious downward trends of the night and cold indices in the upper reaches, the daily temperature differences in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Minjiang River Basin tend to be consistent. Therefore, the precipitation in the Minjiang River Basin shows a significant decreasing trend; thus, the basin shows a trend of drying and warming. Ting Chen, Tianqi Ao, Xu Zhang, Xiaodong Li, and Kebi Yang Copyright © 2019 Ting Chen et al. All rights reserved. Drought Analyses of the Horné Požitavie Region (Slovakia) in the Period 1966–2013 Thu, 11 Jul 2019 09:05:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/3576285/ This study focuses on the characterization of historical drought occurrences in the Horné Požitavie region of Slovakia over the period 1966–2013 using Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Trend analyses were evaluated by the Mann–Kendall (MK) test as well as cumulative sum of rank difference (CRD) test. The results showed that drought occurs in the region regularly (recurrent climate feature), while the trend analysis indicated the trend toward more arid climatic conditions. However, CRD trend analyses showed that the subtrend changed direction toward less drier conditions in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Analyses of SPEI trends in individual months showed a decreasing trend of drought occurrences during the cold months of the year (i.e., October to March), while an increasing trend was indicated from April to August. The evaluation of the impact of drought on agricultural production based on the oilseed rape yield indicated that drought represents a significant natural risk for the agrarian sector of the region. In addition, August value of the SPEI for six months was evaluated as a good indicator of drought impacts on agriculture. The trend analyses revealed no significant increase of drought impacts on agricultural production within the studied period. Jaroslav Vido, Paulína Nalevanková, Ján Valach, Zbyšek Šustek, and Tsegaye Tadesse Copyright © 2019 Jaroslav Vido et al. All rights reserved. Variations of the Reference Evapotranspiration and Aridity Index Over Northeast China: Changing Properties and Possible Causes Thu, 04 Jul 2019 08:05:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/7692871/ Temporal and spatial variations in reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and aridity index (AI) can be used as important indexes for understanding climate change and its effects on ecosystem stability. Thus, in this work, we comprehensively investigated 71 meteorological stations in Northeast China from 1965 to 2017 to analyze the spatial-temporal variation and trend of ET0 and AI using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test, the linear regression, and the Morlet wavelet methods. The results elucidated that ET0 for Northeast China as a whole exhibited a decrease at a rate of −1.97 mm/yr, AI declined at a rate of −0.01/yr during 1965–2017, and approximately 94% stations showed a decrease trend. Spatially, the high values of AI and ET0 were primarily at the western part of the study area except for the Heilongjiang province, and the stations showing low values were mainly distributed in the central and eastern part. The decreasing trends for AI were more obvious in the eastern part compared with the western part over the study region. The abrupt changes in AI occurred in 2005 and 2007, whereas only one abrupt change for ET0 occurred in 1995. For annual ET0, there were periods of 3, 7, 11, and 15 yr, and there existed periods of 1, 7, 11, and 13 yr for annual AI. The correlation coefficients implied wind speed and precipitation were the dominant meteorological factors resulting in the ET0 and AI decrease, respectively. Additionally, the change of the Indian summer monsoon index (ISMI) may also contribute to the weakened AI in the study area. Nevertheless, further investigation is still required to clarify the mechanisms for AI and ET0 variations in the future. Liguo Cao and Zhengchao Zhou Copyright © 2019 Liguo Cao and Zhengchao Zhou. All rights reserved. Effects of Climate Finance on Risk Appraisal: A Study in the Southwestern Coast of Bangladesh Mon, 01 Jul 2019 13:05:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/1587034/ Utilising climate funds properly to reduce the impact of potential risks of climate change at the local level is essential for successful adaptation to climate change. Climate change has been disrupting the lives of millions of households along the coastal region of Bangladesh. The country has allocated support from its national funds and accessed international funds for the implementation of adaptation interventions. With the focus of the scientific community on climate finance mechanisms and governance at the global and the national level, there is a lacuna in empirical evidence of how climate finance affects risk appraisal and engagement in adaptation measures at the local level. This paper aims to examine how the support from climate finance affects risk appraisal in terms of the perceived probability and severity and the factors which influence risk appraisal. A field survey was conducted on 240 climate finance recipient households (CF HHs) and 120 nonclimate finance recipient households (non-CF HHs) in Galachipa Upazila of Patuakhali District in coastal Bangladesh. The results indicate that both CF and non-CF HHs experience a high probability of facing climatic events in the future; however, CF HHs anticipated a higher severity of impacts of climatic events on different dimensions of their households. With higher income and social capital, the overall risk appraisal decreases for CF HHs. CF HHs have higher engagement in adaptation measures and social groups and maintain alternative sources of income. Climate finance played a critical role in supporting households in understanding the risks that they were facing, assisting them in exploring as well as enhancing their engagement in adaptation options. Firdaus Ara Hussain and Mokbul Morshed Ahmad Copyright © 2019 Firdaus Ara Hussain and Mokbul Morshed Ahmad. All rights reserved. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Atmospheric Ammonia Columns over the Indo-Gangetic Plain by Exploiting Satellite Observations Mon, 01 Jul 2019 08:05:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/7525479/ This study was aimed at presenting a continuous and spatially coherent picture of ammonia (NH3) distribution over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) by exploiting satellite observations. Atmospheric columns of ammonia were mapped over South Asia by using TES observations on board NASA’s Aura satellite. Monthly mean data were used to identify emission sources of atmospheric ammonia across the South Asian region. Data were analysed to explore temporal trends, seasonal cycles, and hot spots of atmospheric ammonia within the study area. The results show that the IGP region has the most ammonia concentrations in terms of column densities, and hence this region has been identified as an ammonia hot spot. This is attributed majorly to extensive agricultural activity. Time series showed a slight increase in ammonia column densities over the study area from 2004 to 2011. Different seasonal cycles were identified across the IGP region with maximum NH3 columns observed during the month of July in most of the subregions. Seasonality in an ammonia column is driven by different cropping patterns and meteorological conditions in the IGP subregions. Global emission inventories of atmospheric ammonia were largely overestimating as compared to satellite observations. Aimon Tanvir, Muhammad Fahim Khokhar, Zeeshan Javed, Osama Sandhu, Tehreem Mustansar, and Asadullah Shoaib Copyright © 2019 Aimon Tanvir et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Variation and Characterization of the Micrometeorology in Linpan Settlements in the Chengdu Plain, China: Microclimatic Effects of Linpan Size and Tree Distribution Mon, 01 Jul 2019 07:05:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/3272581/ Linpan settlements (abbreviated as Linpan) are the most important traditional type of rural settlement in the Chengdu Plain, and they are an important part of the agroforestry ecological system in southwest China. In this study, we measured the micrometeorological parameters (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed) in 12 Linpans for two years to determine the seasonal micrometeorology variations; then, we explored the impacts of Linpan size and tree distribution on the Linpan micrometeorology. The results show that the Linpans undergo seasonal cooling (from 0.6 to 1.3°C), humidification (from 0.9% to 4.1%), reduction in solar radiation flux (from 92.1 to 496.0 W/m2), and changes in wind speed (by 0.4 to 0.5 m/s) compared to the surrounding environment. Both solar radiation flux and wind speed showed the following decreasing trend with respect to sampling positions in the Linpan: outside > edge > center. The Linpan size did not affect the solar radiation flux or wind speed over the four seasons. The main factor affecting solar radiation flux and wind speed was the horizontal tree distribution not the Linpan size. However, the Linpan size was significantly correlated with the air temperature in summer and winter. Large Linpans (>5 × 103 m2) showed better ability to control the temperature to within a comfortable range in extremely hot and cold seasons. The Linpan size also showed a negative relationship with the relative humidity, but only in winter. Among the tree distribution patterns, a scattered distribution was optimal to achieve a comfortable micrometeorology over the course of the year. In addition, we suggest some ways to adapt the Linpan micrometeorology, which could be used to protect traditional Linpans, as well as for ecological restoration. Hua Zong, De-hua Pu, and Mei-lin Liu Copyright © 2019 Hua Zong et al. All rights reserved. Climate Change Impacts on Winter Wheat Yield in Northern China Wed, 19 Jun 2019 00:05:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/2767018/ Exploring the impacts of climate change on agriculture is one of important topics with respect to climate change. We quantitatively examined the impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield in Northern China using the Cobb–Douglas production function. Utilizing time-series data of agricultural production and meteorological observations from 1981 to 2016, the impacts of climatic factors on wheat production were assessed. It was found that the contribution of climatic factors to winter wheat yield per unit area (WYPA) was 0.762–1.921% in absolute terms. Growing season average temperature (GSAT) had a negative impact on WYPA for the period of 1981–2016. A 1% increase in GSAT could lead to a loss of 0.109% of WYPA when the other factors were constant. While growing season precipitation (GSP) had a positive impact on WYPA, as a 1% increase in GSP could result in 0.186% increase in WYPA, other factors kept constant. Then, the impacts on WYPA for the period 2021–2050 under two different emissions scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were forecasted. For the whole study area, GSAT is projected to increase 1.37°C under RCP4.5 and 1.54°C under RCP8.5 for the period 2021–2050, which will lower the average WYPA by 1.75% and 1.97%, respectively. GSP is tended to increase by 17.31% under RCP4.5 and 22.22% under RCP8.5 and will give a rise of 3.22% and 4.13% in WYPA. The comprehensive effect of GSAT and GSP will increase WYPA by 1.47% under RCP4.5 and 2.16% under RCP8.5. Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, and Zhixin Hao Copyright © 2019 Xiu Geng et al. All rights reserved. Joint Modeling of Precipitation and Temperature Using Copula Theory for Current and Future Prediction under Climate Change Scenarios in Arid Lands (Case Study, Kerman Province, Iran) Wed, 19 Jun 2019 00:05:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/6848049/ Precipitation and temperature are very important climatic parameters as their changes may affect life conditions. Therefore, predicting temporal trends of precipitation and temperature is very useful for societal and urban planning. In this research, in order to study the future trends in precipitation and temperature, we have applied scenarios of the fifth assessment report of IPCC. The results suggest that both parameters will be increasing in the studied area (Iran) in future. Since there is interdependence between these two climatic parameters, the independent analysis of the two fields will generate errors in the interpretation of model simulations. Therefore, in this study, copula theory was used for joint modeling of precipitation and temperature under climate change scenarios. By the joint distribution, we can find the structure of interdependence of precipitation and temperature in current and future under climate change conditions, which can assist in the risk assessment of extreme hydrological and meteorological events. Based on the results of goodness of fit test, the Frank copula function was selected for modeling of recorded and constructed data under RCP2.6 scenario and the Gaussian copula function was used for joint modeling of the constructed data under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. T. Mesbahzadeh, M. M. Miglietta, M. Mirakbari, F. Soleimani Sardoo, and M. Abdolhoseini Copyright © 2019 T. Mesbahzadeh et al. All rights reserved. Coverage of China New Generation Weather Radar Network Sun, 16 Jun 2019 10:05:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/5789358/ The China Meteorological Administration has deployed the China New Generation Weather Radar (CINRAD) network for severe weather detection and to improve initial conditions for numerical weather prediction models. The CINRAD network consists of 217 radars comprising 123 S-band and 94 C-band radars over mainland China. In this paper, a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and beam propagation simulations are used to compute radar beam blockage and evaluate the effective radar coverage over China. Results show that the radar coverage at a height of 1 km above ground level (AGL) is restricted in complex terrain regions. The effective coverage maps at heights of 2 km and 3 km AGL indicate that the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and North China Plain have more overlapping radar coverage than other regions in China. Over eastern China, almost all areas can be sampled by more than 2 radars within 5 km above mean sea level (MSL), but the radars operating in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau still suffer from serious beam blockage caused by intervening terrain. Overall, the radars installed in western China suffer from much more severe beam blockage than those deployed in eastern China. Maps generated in this study will inform users of the CINRAD data of their limitations for use in precipitation estimation, as inputs to other weather and hydrological models, and for satellite validation studies. Chao Min, Sheng Chen, Jonathan J. Gourley, Haonan Chen, Asi Zhang, Yong Huang, and Chaoying Huang Copyright © 2019 Chao Min et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Simulations of Updraft Mass Fluxes and Their Response to Increasing Aerosol Concentration between a Bin Scheme and a Bulk Scheme in a Deep-Convective Cloud System Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:05:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/9292535/ Key microphysical processes whose parameterizations have substantial impacts on the simulation of updraft mass fluxes and their response to aerosol are investigated in this study. For this investigation, comparisons of these parameterizations are made between a bin scheme and a bulk scheme. These comparisons show that the differences in the prediction of cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) between the two schemes determine whether aerosol-induced invigoration of updrafts or convection occurs. While the CDNC prediction leads to aerosol-induced invigoration of updrafts and an associated 20% increase in the peak value of the updraft-mass-flux vertical profile in the bin scheme, it leads to aerosol-induced suppression of updrafts and an associated 7% decrease in the peak value in the bulk scheme. The comparison also shows that the differences in ice processes, in particular, in the snow loading lead to the different vertical patterns of the updraft-mass-flux profile, which is represented by the peak value and its altitude, between the schemes. Higher loading of snow leads to around 20–30% higher mean peak value and its around 40% higher altitude in the bin scheme than in the bulk scheme. When differences in the CDNC prediction and ice processes are removed, differences in the invigoration and the vertical pattern disappear between the schemes. However, despite this removal, differences in the magnitude of updraft mass fluxes still remain between the schemes. Associated with this, the peak value is around 10% different between the schemes. Also, after the removal, there are differences in the magnitude between cases with different aerosol concentrations for each scheme. Associated with this, the peak value is also around 10% different between those cases for each scheme. The differences between the cases with different aerosol concentrations for each scheme are generated by different evaporative cooling and different intensity of gust fronts between those cases. The remaining differences between the schemes are generated by different treatments of collection and sedimentation processes. Seoung Soo Lee, Chang-Hoon Jung, Sen Chiao, Junshik Um, Yong-Sang Choi, and Won Jun Choi Copyright © 2019 Seoung Soo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Cirrus Clouds over the Tibetan Plateau Based on CALIPSO and AIRS Observations Tue, 11 Jun 2019 09:05:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/6989648/ The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of high clouds over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were studied using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the GCM-Oriented CALIPSO Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP) monthly mean cloud products from 2007 to 2017. The high clouds over the TP are dominated by cirrus and show seasonal variation characteristics. There were two distinct areas with the high occurrence of cirrus clouds in the area (0°–60°N, 75°–103°E). One was located in the regions from the equator to 25°N, and the other was within the latitude belt from 30° to 40°N. From January to May, cirrus clouds mainly occurred in the central and northern parts of the TP (30° to 40°N), and the cirrus cloud fraction increased from January and reached its maximum (∼0.51) in April. From June to August, cirrus clouds mainly occurred in the southern part of the TP during summer. The cirrus clouds over the southern TP were relatively high (located in 10–17 km) and manifested northward and southward movements. The ice clouds in the southern TP are associated with plateau deep convection activities and abundant vapor transmitted by the Asian monsoon. Cirrus clouds over the northern and central TP may be relevant to the atmospheric lift by an approaching cold front and topographic lifting. Moreover, the high clouds below 11 km are dominated by opaque clouds, while the nonopaque (or thin) and opaque (or thick) clouds above 11 km are comparable. Hailei Liu, Yuan Chen, Shenglan Zhang, Jilie Ding, Xiaobo Deng, and Xingzhong Liu Copyright © 2019 Hailei Liu et al. All rights reserved. Perceived Influence of Weather Conditions on Rheumatic Pain in Romania Mon, 10 Jun 2019 10:05:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/9187105/ The main objective of this study was to analyze the perception of the influence of various weather conditions on patients with rheumatic pathology. A group of 394 patients, aged between 39 and 87 years and diagnosed with degenerative rheumatic diseases, were interviewed individually by using a questionnaire created specifically for this study. Further on, to assess the relationship between pain intensity and weather conditions, a frequency analysis based on Pearson’s correlation matrix was employed. The most important results are as follows: the great majority of the participants (more than 75%) believe that their rheumatic pain is definitely or to a great extent influenced by different weather conditions; most of the patients reported intensification of their pain with weather worsening, especially when cloudiness and humidity suddenly increase (83.8% and 82.0%, respectively), air temperature suddenly decreases (81.5%), and in fog or rain conditions (81.2%). In our research, alongside simple meteorological variables, we established that complex weather variables such as atmospheric fronts, in particular, the cold ones and winter anticyclonic conditions, greatly intensify the rheumatic pain, whereas summer anticyclonic conditions usually lead to a decrease in pain severity. In terms of relationships between pain intensity and weather conditions, we found the strongest correlations (ranging between 0.725 and 0.830) when temperature, relative humidity, and cloudiness are constantly high. Adina-Eliza Croitoru, Gabriela Dogaru, Titus Cristian Man, Simona Mălăescu, Marieta Motricală, and Andreea-Sabina Scripcă Copyright © 2019 Adina-Eliza Croitoru et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Environmental Factors on Ozone Flux over a Wheat Field Modeled with an Artificial Neural Network Tue, 04 Jun 2019 07:05:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/1257910/ Ozone (O3) flux-based indices are considered better than O3 concentration-based indices in assessing the effects of ground O3 on ecosystem and crop yields. However, O3 flux (Fo) measurements are often lacking due to technical reasons and environmental conditions. This hampers the calculation of flux-based indices. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) method was attempted to simulate the relationships between Fo and environmental factors measured over a wheat field in Yucheng, China. The results show that the ANN-modeled Fo values were in good agreement with the measured Fo values. The R2 of an ANN model with 6 routine independent environmental variables exceeded 0.8 for training datasets, and the RMSE and MAE were 3.074 nmol·m−2·s and 2.276 nmol·m−2·s for test dataset, respectively. CO2 flux and water vapor flux have strong correlations with Fo and could improve the fitness of ANN models. Besides the combinations of included variables and selection of training data, the number of neurons is also a source of uncertainties in an ANN model. The fitness of the modeled Fo was sensitive to the neuron number when it ranged from 1 to 10. The ANN model consists of complex arithmetic expressions between Fo and independent variables, and the response analysis shows that the model can reflect their basic physical relationships and importance. O3 concentration, global radiation, and wind speed are the important factors affecting O3 deposition. ANN methods exhibit significant value for filling the gaps of Fo measured with micrometeorological methods. Zhilin Zhu Copyright © 2019 Zhilin Zhu. All rights reserved. Raindrop Size Distribution Retrieval Using Joint Dual-Frequency and Dual-Polarization Microwave Links Sun, 02 Jun 2019 12:05:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/7251870/ Estimation of raindrop size distribution (DSD) is essential in many meteorological and hydrologic fields. This paper proposes a method for retrieving path-averaged DSD parameters using joint dual-frequency and dual-polarization microwave links of the telecommunication system. Detailed analyses of the rain-induced attenuation calculation are performed based on the T-matrix method. A forward model is established for describing the relation between the DSD and the rain-induced attenuation. Then, the method is proposed to retrieve propagation path DSD parameters based on Levenberg–Marquardt optimization algorithm. The numerical simulation for path-averaged DSD retrieval shows that the RMSEs of three gamma DSD parameters are 0.34 mm−1, 0.81, and 3.21×103 m−3·mm−1, respectively, in rainfall intensity above 30 mm/h. Meanwhile, the method can retrieve the rainfall intensity without the influence of variational DSD. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations confirm that the method for retrieving path-averaged DSD parameters is promising. The method can complement existing DSD monitoring systems such as the disdrometer and provide high-resolution rainfall measurements with widely distributed microwave links without additional cost. Kun Song, Xichuan Liu, Taichang Gao, and Binsheng He Copyright © 2019 Kun Song et al. All rights reserved. Climate Variability and Farmers’ Perception in Southern Ethiopia Sun, 02 Jun 2019 12:05:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/7341465/ The study aims to analyze climate variability and farmers’ perception in Southern Ethiopia. Gridded annual temperature and precipitation data were obtained from the National Meteorological Agency (NMA) of Ethiopia for the period between 1983 and 2014. Using a multistage sampling technique, 403 farm households were surveyed to substantiate farmers’ perceptions about climate variability and change. The study applied a nonparametric Sen’s slope estimator and Mann–Kendall’s trend tests to detect the magnitude and statistical significance of climate variability and binary logit regression model to find factors influencing farm households’ perceptions about climate variability over three agroecological zones (AEZs). The trend analysis reveals that positive trends were observed in the annual maximum temperature, 0.02°C/year () in the lowland and 0.04°C/year () in the highland AEZs. The positive trend in annual minimum temperature was consistent in all AEZs and significant (). An upward trend in the annual total rainfall (10 mm/year) () was recorded in the midland AEZ. Over 60% of farmers have perceived increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall in all AEZs. However, farmers’ perception about rainfall in the midland AEZ contradicts with meteorological analysis. Results from the binary logit model inform that farmers’ climate change perceptions are significantly influenced by their access to climate and market information, agroecology, education, agricultural input, and village market distance. Based on these results, it is recommended to enhance farm households’ capacity by providing timely weather and climate information along with institutional actions such as agricultural extension services. Befikadu Esayas, Belay Simane, Ermias Teferi, Victor Ongoma, and Nigussie Tefera Copyright © 2019 Befikadu Esayas et al. All rights reserved. Combination of Radar and Rain Gauge Information to Map the Snowy Region in Jeju Island, Korea: A Case Study Sun, 02 Jun 2019 11:05:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/3572431/ Hallasan Mountain is located at the center of Jeju Island, Korea. Even though Hallasan Mountain has a height of just 1,950 m, the temperature during the winter decreases below −20 degrees Celsius. On the contrary, the temperature on the coastal areas remains just above freezing. Therefore, large snowfalls in the mountain and rainfall in the coastal areas are very common in Jeju Island. Most of the rain gauges are available around highly populated coastal areas, and snow measurements are available at just four locations on the coastal areas. Therefore, it is practically impossible to distinguish the rainfall and snowfall in Jeju Island. Fortunately, two radars (Seongsan and Gosan radars) operate on Jeju Island, which fully covers Hallasan Mountain. This study proposes a method of using both the radar and rain gauge information to map the snowy region in Jeju Island, including Hallasan Mountain. As a first step, this study analyzed the Z-R and Z-S relationships to derive a fixed threshold of radar reflectivity to separate snowfall from rainfall, and, in the second step, this study additionally considered the observed rain rate information to implement the problem of using the fixed threshold. This proposed method was applied to radar reflectivity data collected during November 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, and the results indicate that the method considering both the radar and rain gauge information was satisfactory. This method also showed good performance, especially when the rain rate was very low. Jung Mo Ku and Chulsang Yoo Copyright © 2019 Jung Mo Ku and Chulsang Yoo. All rights reserved. Seasonal and Regional Differences in Extreme Rainfall Events and Their Contribution to the World’s Precipitation: GPM Observations Thu, 30 May 2019 07:05:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/4631609/ In the present study, five-year of precipitation features (PFs) datasets, based on Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), are used to investigate the global and regional characteristics of extreme rainfall events (EREs). The EREs are defined based on the PFs area, depth (maximum height of radar reflectivity), and the rain rate and called them largest, deepest, and intense EREs, respectively. The EREs are divided into top 10%, 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01% based on their frequency of occurrences. It is observed that occurrences of EREs belonging to less than top 0.01% EREs follow the tropical rainfall climatology over the tropics based on all the parameters. Subtropical oceanic areas consist of a higher frequency of largest EREs, whereas tropical land areas consist of the higher number of deepest EREs. The most intense EREs (top 0.01%) are uniformly distributed over tropical areas and subtropical oceans, and spatial distribution shows that a deepest ERE belongs to intense EREs in the tropical land areas. Large differences between the precipitation contribution from the largest and deepest EREs are seen; for example, the top 1% of largest EREs contribute to ∼80.7% of Earth’s precipitation, whereas the corresponding percentage for deepest EREs is only 53%. On the regional and seasonal scale, South Asia (SAsia) and South America (SA) nearly show common features, as oceanic and land areas consist of largest and deepest EREs, respectively, and contribute to higher precipitation. Subtropical latitudes over South America, including Sierra de Cordoba and La Plata basin, consist of deepest and intense EREs and match with those of the Indo-Gangetic plain over South Asia, which also shows the similar characteristics. EREs based on various parameters are strongly linked over SAsia compared to SA. For example, the largest top 10% EREs have a higher probability to be part of the top 10% deepest and intense EREs over SAsia. The seasonal and regional water budget reveals different characteristics, as in the southern hemisphere, the deeper EREs contribute to the higher fraction of rainfall, but over SAsia, the shallower EREs could also contribute to significant rainfall. Shailendra Kumar, Yamina Silva, Aldo S. Moya-Álvarez, and Daniel Martínez-Castro Copyright © 2019 Shailendra Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Sea Surface Temperature and Surface Air Temperature on Maximizing Typhoon Rainfall: Focusing on Typhoon Maemi in Korea Wed, 29 May 2019 09:05:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2019/1930453/ In this study, the effects of surface air temperature (SAT) and sea surface temperature (SST) changes on typhoon rainfall maximization are analysed. Based on the numerically reproduced Typhoon Maemi, this study tried to maximize the typhoon-induced rainfall by increasing the amount of saturated water vapour in the atmosphere and the amount of water vapour entering the typhoon. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is one of the regional climate models (RCMs), the rainfall simulated by WRF while increasing the SAT and SST to various sizes at initial conditions and boundary conditions of the model was analysed. As a result of the simulated typhoon rainfall, the spatial distribution of total rainfall depth on the land due to the increase combination of SAT and SST showed a wide variety without showing a certain pattern. This is attributed to the geographical location of the Korean peninsula, which is a peninsula between the continent and the ocean. In other words, under certain conditions, typhoons may drop most of the rainfall on the southern sea of the peninsula before landing on the peninsula. For instance, the 6-hour duration maximum precipitation (MP) in Busan Metropolitan City was 472.1 mm when the SST increased by 2.0°C. However, when the SST increased by 4.0°C, the MP was found to be 395.3 mm, despite the further increase in SST. This indicates that the MP at a particular area and the increase in temperature do not have a linear relationship. Therefore, in order to maximize typhoon rainfall, it is necessary to repeat the numerical experiment on various conditions and search for the combination of SAT and SST increase which is most suitable for the target typhoon. Jeonghyeon Choi, Jeonghoon Lee, and Sangdan Kim Copyright © 2019 Jeonghyeon Choi et al. All rights reserved.