Research Article | Open Access
Ivan Pukal’skii, Bohdan Yashan, "The Cauchy Problem for Parabolic Equations with Degeneration", Advances in Mathematical Physics, vol. 2020, Article ID 1245143, 7 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1245143
The Cauchy Problem for Parabolic Equations with Degeneration
Annotation. For a second-order parabolic equation, the multipoint in time Cauchy problem is considered. The coefficients of the equation and the boundary condition have power singularities of arbitrary order in time and space variables on a certain set of points. Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the problem in Hölder spaces with power weight are found.
One of the important directions of development of the modern theory of partial differential equations is the study of nonlocal boundary value problems for different types of differential equations and partial differential equation systems and establishing the conditions for their correct solvability. Such problems arise when modeling different phenomena and processes in modern science, quantum mechanics, technology, economics, etc.
Multipoint problems for partial differential equations were studied in the papers by Ptashnyk and his disciples. In particular, paper  is dedicated to multipoint problems for partial differential equations, not resolved relative to the highest time derivative. The question of the existence and qualitative properties of solutions for equations with limited order of degeneration has been studied in papers [2–4]. The Dirichlet problem with impulse action for a parabolic equation with power singularities of arbitrary order on time and spatial variables is investigated in paper . In paper , a multipoint one-sided boundary value problem is studied. In paper , presented is the result of research of optimal control of the system described by the problem with an oblique derivative and an integral condition on time variable for parabolic equations with power singularities of arbitrary order. For a second-order parabolic equation, a multipoint (in time) problem with oblique derivative is considered in paper . Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solution of the posed problem in Hölder spaces with power weight are established.
In this paper, we investigate a multipoint time-varying Cauchy problem for a parabolic second-order equation with power singularities and arbitrary order degenerations in the coefficients of spatial and time variables at some set of points. We also find conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the solution of formulated problem in Hölder spaces with power weight.
2. Statement of the Problem and Main Result
Let be fixed positive numbers, , , , , and let be some bounded domain in , .
Let us consider the problem of finding a function in the domain , which, for , satisfies the equation and multipoint conditions for variable
The power singularities of coefficients of the differential equation (1) at the point characterize functions , : where , , , , .
Let us denote that , , , , , , , are real numbers, , , , , , is the integer part of , , , , , , , are arbitrary points of the domain , .
Let be an arbitrary closed domain in , , .
is a set of functions of space , which are having continuous partial derivatives in of the form , and a finite value of the norm
Marked here, , , .
We assume that the initial problems (1) and (2) satisfy the following conditions: (a)For the arbitrary vector , , the following inequalityis true, where are fixed positive constants and , , , , , , . (b)Functions , , , ,
Let us formulate the main result of the paper.
Theorem 1. Let conditions (a) and (b) be satisfied for problem (1) and (2). Then, there exists a unique solution of problem (1) and (2) in the space , and the following estimate is correct: To study problem (1) and (2), we construct a sequence of solutions of problems with a smooth coefficient limit value of which is the solution of problem (1) and (2).
3. Evaluation of Solutions of Problems with Smooth Coefficients
Let , , , be a sequence of domains that for , converges to .
In the domain , we consider the problem of finding the functions that satisfy the equations and the time variable condition
Here, the coefficients , , , and functions , , into the domains coincide with , , , , , respectively, and in the domains are continuous prolongations of coefficients , , and functions , from domains into domains with preservation of their smoothness and norm (, p. 82).
Proof. Let . If , then at the point , the following correlations
are true and equation (7) is satisfied. Considering (10) and equation (7) at the point , the inequality
Let . If , then at the point , the following correlations are true and equation (7) is satisfied. Considering correlation (12) and equation (7) at the point , we have In the case of or from condition (8), we obtain Considering inequality (11), (13), and (14), we obtain The theorem is proved.
Now, we find estimates of the derivatives of solutions . In the space , we introduce a norm which is equivalent, at fixed , , to the Hölder norm, which is defined by the same way as the norm ; only, instead of functions and , we take and , respectively,
Proof. Using the definition of the norm and interpolation inequalities from , we have where is an arbitrary real number . Hence, it is sufficient to estimate the seminorm . As follows from the definition of seminorm, there exist in points , for which one of the inequalities is true, where If , and is an arbitrary real number from (0,1), then If , then Applying the interpolation inequalities to (21) and (22), we find Let , and let . We assume that , and , . In the domain , we write the problem (7) and (8) in the form Let be a domain from , . Performing the substitution, in problem (25) and (26), we obtain where .
We denote and choose a thrice differentiable function , which satisfies the conditions
We denote the function which is a solution of the Cauchy problem
On the basis of Theorem 5.3 from (, p. 364), for the solution of problem (31) and (32) and arbitrary points inequalities are true, where , is the parabolic distance between the points and . With regard to the properties of function , we find estimates of the norms of expressions and :
The definition of the space implies the satisfaction of inequalities
Given the interpolation inequalities and estimates of the norm of each additive of the expressions , , we obtain the inequalities
Given the values of the expression and , for , we have
Proof of Theorem 4. The right-hand side of inequality (17) is independent of , and the sequences are uniformly bounded and equicontinuous in . According to Arcel’s theorem, there exist subsequences which are uniformly convergent to in for , . Passing to the limit as in problem (7) and (8), we obtain that is the unique solution of problem (1) and (2) and . The theorem is proved.
The necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the unique solution of a multipoint problem for parabolic equations with degeneration are established. Estimates of derivatives of the solution of the problem in the Hölder spaces with power weight are found. The order of the degree weight depends on the power of the degree features of the coefficients of the equation.
The article contains theoretical material. This paper has links to articles and textbooks from other researchers. The article does not use any data.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.
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