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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2012, Article ID 269603, 8 pages
Research Article

Hydrogen Charging Effects in Pd/Ti/TiO2/Ti Thin Films Deposited on Si(111) Studied by Ion Beam Analysis Methods

1Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30,30 059 Kraków, Poland
2Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
3Dynamitron Tandem Labor, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany
4Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, Podchorążych 2, 30 084 Kraków, Poland
5Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Kraków, Poland
6Department of Materials Science, The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31 342 Kraków, Poland

Received 27 June 2011; Accepted 8 August 2011

Academic Editor: David D. Cohen

Copyright © 2012 K. Drogowska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Titanium and titanium dioxide thin films were deposited onto Si(111) substrates by magnetron sputtering from a metallic Ti target in a reactive Ar+O2 atmosphere, the composition of which was controlled by precision gas controllers. For some samples, 1/3 of the surface was covered with palladium using molecular beam epitaxy. Chemical composition, density, and layer thickness of the layers were determined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The surface morphology was studied using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). After deposition, smooth, homogenous sample surfaces were observed. Hydrogen charging for 5 hours under pressure of 1 bar and at temperature of 300°C results in granulation of the surface. Hydrogen depth profile was determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and nuclear Reaction Analysis (N-15 method), using a 15N beam at and above the resonance energy of 6.417 MeV. NRA measurements proved a higher hydrogen concentration in samples with partially covered top layers, than in samples without palladium. The highest value of H concentration after charging was about 50% (in the palladium-covered part) and about 40% in titanium that was not covered by Pd. These values are in good agreement with the results of SIMS measurements.