Table 2: Approaches to predict the thermal conductivity of silica aerogels (adapted from Jun-Jie et al. [66]).

ModelAuthorStructure representationMethodComments

EmpiricalLu et al. [60]
Wang et al. [67]
IgnoredVolume average as a function of density or porosityCannot be applied for aerogels with different microstructures

Analytical Wei et al. [10]
Lu et al. [65]
Wei et al. [10]
Cubic array of nanospherical structure Standard equivalent circuit method Cannot represent the randomness and complexity of aerogels
Jun-Jie et al. [66]3D random DLCA structureStandard equivalent circuit with improved analytical parallel-series modelDoes not require any empirical parameters as input

Numerical Spagnol et al. [68]
Zhao et al. [12]
Von Koch snowflake fractal structure and random DLCA structure Finite volume method based on the mesh division3D calculations are time consuming