Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 629092, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/629092
Research Article

Mechanical Properties and Morphological Characterization of PLA/Chitosan/Epoxidized Natural Rubber Composites

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
4School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Received 24 May 2013; Accepted 17 August 2013

Academic Editor: Gongnan Xie

Copyright © 2013 Zainoha Zakaria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Li and Y. Xia, “Electrospinning of nanofibers: reinventing the wheel?” Advanced Materials, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 1151–1170, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. K. M. Haafiz, S. J. Eichhorn, A. Hassan, and M. Jawaid, “Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm biomass residue,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 93, pp. 628–634, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  3. N. M. Julkapli, H. M. Akil, and Z. Ahmad, “Preparation, properties and applications of chitosan-based biocomposites/blend materials: a review,” Composite Interfaces, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 449–507, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Domard, “A perspective on 30 years research on chitin and chitosan,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 696–703, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Jonoobi, J. Harun, A. P. Mathew, and K. Oksman, “Mechanical properties of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) prepared by twin screw extrusion,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 1742–1747, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. E. Drumright, P. R. Gruber, and D. E. Henton, “Polylactic acid technology,” Advanced Materials, vol. 12, pp. 1841–1846, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  7. A. P. Mathew, K. Oksman, and M. Sain, “Mechanical properties of biodegradable composites from poly lactic acid (PLA) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC),” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 2014–2025, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Oksman, A. P. Mathew, D. Bondeson, and I. Kvien, “Manufacturing process of cellulose whiskers/polylactic acid nanocomposites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 66, no. 15, pp. 2776–2784, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Petersson, I. Kvien, and K. Oksman, “Structure and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose whiskers nanocomposite materials,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 67, no. 11-12, pp. 2535–2544, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Qu, Y. Gao, G.-F. Wu, and L.-P. Zhang, “Nanocomposites of Poly(lactic acid) reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils,” Bioresources, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1811–1823, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Tanabe, N. Okitsu, A. Tachibana, and K. Yamauchi, “Preparation and characterization of keratin-chitosan composite film,” Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 817–825, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. A. A. Muzzarelli, “Chitins and chitosans for the repair of wounded skin, nerve, cartilage and bone,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 167–182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. N. V. R. Kumar, R. A. A. Muzzarelli, C. Muzzarelli, H. Sashiwa, and A. J. Domb, “Chitosan chemistry and pharmaceutical perspectives,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 6017–6084, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Z. Zakaria, Z. Izzah, M. Jwaid, and A. Hassan, “Effect of degree of deacetylation chitosan on theremal stability and compatibility of chitosan polyamid blend,” Bioresources, vol. 7, pp. 5568–5580, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Jeevitha and K. Amarnath, “Chitosan/PLA nanoparticles as a novel carrier for the delivery of anthraquinone: synthesis, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation,” Colloids and Surfaces B, vol. 101, pp. 126–134, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Jayakumar, M. Prabaharan, S. V. Nair, and H. Tamura, “Novel chitin and chitosan nanofibers in biomedical applications,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 142–150, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Tamura, T. Furuike, S. V. Nair, and R. Jayakumar, “Biomedical applications of chitin hydrogel membranes and scaffolds,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 820–824, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. E. Suyatma, A. Copinet, V. Coma, and F. Fricoteaux, “Compatibilization method applied to the chitosan-acid poly(L-lactide) solution,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 3083–3091, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Balakrishnan, N. Nematzadeh, M. U. Wahit, H. Hassan, and M. Imran, “Epoxidized natural rubber toughened polyamide 6/organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposites,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 26, pp. 1–18, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. C. Chen, L. Dong, and M. K. Cheung, “Preparation and characterization of biodegradable poly(l-lactide)/chitosan blends,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 958–966, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Peesan, P. Supaphol, and R. Rujiravanit, “Preparation and characterization of hexanoyl chitosan/polylactide blend films,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 343–350, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. H. Yew, M. A. M. Yusof, M. Z. A. Ishak, and U. S. Ishiaku, “Water absorption and enzymatic degradation of poly(lactic acid)/rice starch composites,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 488–500, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Q. Cheng, S. Wang, and T. G. Rials, “Poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose fibrils isolated by high intensity ultrasonication,” Composites Part A, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 218–224, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. J. Eichhorn, A. Dufresne, M. Aranguren et al., “Current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1–33, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Li and Y. Xia, “Electrospinning of nanofibers: reinventing the wheel?” Advanced Materials, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 1151–1170, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. M. Correlo, L. F. Boesel, M. Bhattacharya, J. F. Mano, N. M. Neves, and R. L. Reis, “Properties of melt processed chitosan and aliphatic polyester blends,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 403, no. 1-2, pp. 57–68, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. M. Correlo, L. F. Boesel, M. Bhattacharya, J. F. Mano, N. M. Neves, and R. L. Reis, “Hydroxyapatite reinforced chitosan and polyester blends for biomedical applications,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 290, no. 12, pp. 1157–1165, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Grande and A. J. F. Carvalho, “Compatible ternary blends of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(lactic acid) produced by oil-in-water emulsion processing,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 907–914, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Pei, Q. Zhou, and L. A. Berglund, “Functionalized cellulose nanocrystals as biobased nucleation agents in poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)—crystallization and mechanical property effects,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 815–821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus