Figure 3: The structure of the heat-affected zone (a): , and are the temperatures of liquidus, solidus, and recrystallization, respectively; and are the temperatures at the beginning and the end of the phase transformation is the heating time from to is the cooling time from to and are the heating and cooling rates during the phase transformation. The weld thermal cycles 1, 2 and the annealing cycle 3 (b): and are thicknesses of the welded elements; and are the cooling rates of the welds in the temperature . The phase transformation diagram during welding of technical titanium (c): I is the beginning of the transformation , and II is the end of the transformation .