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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 210486, 7 pages
Research Article

Application of Different Extraction Methods for Investigation of Nonmetallic Inclusions and Clusters in Steels and Alloys

1KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
2Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

Received 30 September 2013; Accepted 14 October 2013; Published 9 January 2014

Academic Editor: Ming-Xing Zhang

Copyright © 2014 Diana Janis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The characterization of nonmetallic inclusions is of importance for the production of clean steel in order to improve the mechanical properties. In this respect, a three-dimensional (3D) investigation is considered to be useful for an accurate evaluation of size, number, morphology of inclusions, and elementary distribution in each inclusion particle. In this study, the application of various extraction methods (chemical extraction/etching by acid or halogen-alcohol solutions, electrolysis, sputtering with glow discharge, and so on) for 3D estimation of nonmetallic Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in high-alloyed steels was examined and discussed using an Fe-10 mass% Ni alloy and an 18/8 stainless steel deoxidized with Al. Advantages and limitations of different extraction methods for 3D investigations of inclusions and clusters were discussed in comparison to conventional two-dimensional (2D) observations on a polished cross section of metal samples.