Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 602504, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/602504
Research Article

Effect of Na Content on the Physical Properties of Powders

1Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131, Thailand
3Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Received 29 May 2013; Accepted 26 November 2013; Published 30 January 2014

Academic Editor: Jun Liu

Copyright © 2014 Tassanee Tubchareon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. B. Khollam, S. B. Deshpande, H. S. Potdar, S. V. Bhoraskar, S. R. Sainkar, and S. K. Date, “Simple oxalate precursor route for the preparation of barium-strontium titanate: Ba1-xSrxTiO3 powders,” Materials Characterization, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 63–74, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Mao, X. Dong, T. Zeng, H. Chen, and F. Cao, “Nonhydrolytic sol-gel synthesis and dielectric properties of ultrafine-grained and homogenized Ba0.70Sr0.30TiO3,” Ceramics International, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 45–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. Tubchareon, S. Soisuwan, S. Ratanathammaphan, and P. Praserthdam, “Effect of Na-, K-, Mg-, and Ga dopants in A/B-sites on the optical band gap and photoluminescence behavior of [Ba0.5Sr0.5]TiO3 powders,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 142, pp. 75–80, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. Y. Li, X. Yao, and L. Zhang, “Dielectric properties and microstructure of magnesium-doped Ba1+k(Ti1-xCax)O3-x+k ceramics,” Ceramics International, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1283–1287, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X. Zhou, H. Geßwein, M. Sazegar et al., “Characterization of metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) and fluorine codoped barium strontium titanate thick-films for microwave applications,” Journal of Electroceramics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 345–354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. T. Buscaglia, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, P. Nanni, and M. Hanuskova, “Influence of foreign ions on the crystal structure of BaTiO3,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1997–2007, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. T. Langhammer, T. Müller, R. Böttcher, and H. P. Abicht, “Crystal structure and related properties of copper-doped barium titanate ceramics,” Solid State Sciences, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 965–971, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. C. R. Gautam, D. Kumar, and O. Parkash, “Crystallization behavior and microstructural analysis of lead-rich (PbxSr1-x) TiO3 glass ceramics containing 1mole La2O3,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID 402376, 11 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. R. Gautam, D. Kumar, and O. Parkash, “Crystallization behavior and microstructural analysis of Strontium Rich (PbxS r1-x) TiO3 glass ceramics in Presence of La2O3,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2011, Article ID 747346, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Yongping, Y. Wenhu, and C. Shoutian, “Influence of rare earths on electric properties and microstructure of barium titanate ceramics,” Journal of Rare Earths, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 154–157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. Yao, H. Liu, Y. Liu et al., “Structure and dielectric behavior of Nd-doped BaTiO3 perovskites,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 109, no. 2-3, pp. 475–481, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Moos and K. H. Härdtl, “Defect chemistry of donor-doped and undoped strontium titanate ceramics between 1000° and 1400°C,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 2549–2562, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. A. V. Ferri, J. C. Sczancoski, L. S. Cavalcante et al., “Photoluminescence behavior in MgTiO3 powders with vacancy/distorted clusters and octahedral tilting,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 192–198, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Boulos, S. Guillemet-Fritsch, F. Mathieu, B. Durand, T. Lebey, and V. Bley, “Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosized BaTiO3 powders and dielectric properties of corresponding ceramics,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 176, no. 13-14, pp. 1301–1309, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Mao, X. Dong, T. Zeng, G. Wang, and S. Chen, “Formation and control of mechanism for the preparation of ultra-fine barium strontium titanate powders by the citrate precursor method,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1602–1610, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H.-Y. Tian, W.-G. Luo, X.-H. Pu, P.-S. Qiu, X.-Y. He, and A.-L. Ding, “Synthesis and analyses of thermal decomposition and microstructure of Sr-doped barium titanate alkoxide derived precipitates and thin films,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 360, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. Baeten, B. Derks, W. Coppens, and E. van Kleef, “Barium titanate characterization by differential scanning calorimetry,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 26, no. 4-5, pp. 589–592, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. J. Bian and Y. Z. Li, “Structural evolution and microwave dielectric properties of A-site deficient perovskite La(1-x)/3NaxNbO3 (0.0 < x ≤ 0.4),” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 122, no. 2-3, pp. 617–622, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. S. Cavalcante, A. Z. Simões, J. W. M. Espinosa et al., “Study of structural evolution and photoluminescent properties at room temperature of Ca(Zr,Ti)O3 powders,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 464, no. 1-2, pp. 340–346, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. S. Cavalcante, J. C. Sczancoski, J. W. M. Espinosa et al., “Intense blue and green photoluminescence emissions at room temperature in barium zirconate powders,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 471, no. 1-2, pp. 253–258, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. M. Longo, A. T. de Figueiredo, S. de Lázaro et al., “Structural conditions that leads to photoluminescence emission in SrTiO3: an experimental and theoretical approach,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 104, no. 2, Article ID 023515, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. K. Rout, L. S. Cavalcante, J. C. Sczancoski et al., “Photoluminescence property of Ba (Zr0.25Ti0.75)O3 powders prepared by solid state reaction and polymeric precursor method,” Physica B, vol. 404, no. 20, pp. 3341–3347, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. S. Cavalcante, J. C. Sczancoski, V. M. Longo et al., “Intense violet-blue photoluminescence in BaZrO3 powders: a theoretical and experimental investigation of structural order-disorder,” Optics Communications, vol. 281, no. 14, pp. 3715–3720, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. V. M. Longo, L. S. Cavalcante, R. Erlo et al., “Strong violet-blue light photoluminescence emission at room temperature in SrZrO3: joint experimental and theoretical study,” Acta Materialia, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2191–2202, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Ganguly, S. K. Rout, W. S. Woo, C. W. Ahn, and I. W. Kim, “Characterization of A-site deficient samarium doped barium titanate,” Physica B, vol. 411, pp. 26–34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. T. Tubchareon, S. Soisuwan, S. Ratanathammaphan, and P. Praserthdam, “Effect of carbon-dopant on the optical band gap and photoluminescence properties of [Ba0.5Sr0.5]TiO3 powders synthesized by the sol–gel process,” Journal of Luminescence, vol. 145, pp. 919–924, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. P. Bomlai, N. Sirikulrat, and T. Tunkasiri, “Effect of heating rate on the properties of Sb and Mn-doped barium strontium titanate PTCR ceramics,” Materials Letters, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 118–122, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Schaab, M. Schulz, H. Fritze et al., “Influence of reducing atmosphere on the defect chemistry of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (8/65/35),” Solid State Ionics, vol. 228, pp. 56–63, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. S. H. Yoon, S. H. Kwon, and K. H. Hur, “Dielectric relaxation behavior of acceptor (Mg)-doped BaTiO3,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 109, pp. 084117–084118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. Steinsvik, Y. Larring, and T. Norby, “Hydrogen ion conduction in iron-substituted strontium titanate, SrTi1-xFexO3-x/2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8),” Solid State Ionics, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 103–116, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Kolodiazhnyi and A. Petric, “Analysis of point defects in polycrystalline BaTiO3 by electron paramagnetic resonance,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 953–960, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. S. Castro, W. Salgueiro, and A. Somoza, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and positron annihilation study of the compensation mechanisms in donor-doped BaTiO3 ceramics,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 1315–1323, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. X. Zhao, Q. Yang, and J. Cui, “XPS study of surface absorbed oxygen of ABO3 mixed oxides,” Journal of Rare Earths, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 511–514, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Q. Xu, D.-P. Huang, W. Chen, H. Wang, B.-T. Wang, and R.-Z. Yuan, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation on chemical states of oxygen on surfaces of mixed electronic-ionic conducting La0.6Sr0.4Co1-yFeyO3 ceramics,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 228, no. 1–4, pp. 110–114, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. A. Merino, B. P. Barbero, P. Eloy, and L. E. Cadús, “La1-xCaxCoO3 perovskite-type oxides: identification of the surface oxygen species by XPS,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 3, pp. 1489–1493, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W.-D. Yang, “PZT/PLZT ceramics prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of acetate precursors,” Ceramics International, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 373–384, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Song, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, and Y. Zhou, “Effect of BaTi4O9 fibers on dielectric properties of 0.64BaTi4O9 + 0.36BaPr2Ti4O12 composites,” Ceramics International, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 685–688, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. X. Liao, C. R. Yang, J. H. Zhang, C. L. Fu, H. W. Chen, and W. J. Leng, “The interfacial structures of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 252, no. 20, pp. 7407–7414, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. W. H. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. T. Tao, W. H. Zhang, J. Chen, and J. X. Zhang, “Raman study of barium titanate with oxygen vacancies,” Physica B, vol. 406, no. 24, pp. 4630–4633, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Polini, A. Falsetti, E. Traversa, O. Schäf, and P. Knauth, “Sol-gel synthesis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical conductivity of Co-doped (La, Sr)(Ga, Mg)O3-δ perovskites,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 27, no. 13–15, pp. 4291–4296, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. Lakshminarayanan, H. Choi, J. N. Kuhn, and U. S. Ozkan, “Effect of additional B-site transition metal doping on oxygen transport and activation characteristics in La0.6Sr0.4(Co0.18Fe0.72X0.1)O3-δ (where X=Zn, Ni or Cu) perovskite oxides,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 103, no. 3-4, pp. 318–325, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D.R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th edition, 2004.