Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 606814, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/606814
Research Article

The Effects of Gallium Additions on Microstructures and Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Sn-9Zn Solder Alloys

1Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Tung Fang Design Institute, No. 110, Dong Fang Road, Hunei, Kaohsiung 82941, Taiwan
2Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
3Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan

Received 19 September 2013; Revised 10 December 2013; Accepted 12 December 2013; Published 22 January 2014

Academic Editor: Tao Zhang

Copyright © 2014 Kang I. Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. McCormack and S. Jin, “Progress in the design of new lead-free solder alloys,” The Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 36–40, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Abtew and G. Selvaduray, “Lead-free solders in microelectronics,” Materials Science and Engineering R, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 95–141, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Mavoori, J. Chin, S. Vaynman, B. Moran, L. Keer, and M. Fine, “Creep, stress relaxation, and plastic deformation in Sn-Ag and Sn-Zn eutectic solders,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 783–790, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Suganuma, T. Murata, H. Noguchi, and Y. Toyoda, “Heat resistance of Sn-9Zn solder/Cu interface with or without coating,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 884–891, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. P. Wood and K. L. Nimmo, “In search of new lead-free electronic solders,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 709–713, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Suganuma, K. Niihara, T. Shoutoku, and Y. Nakamura, “Wetting and interface microstructure between Sn-Zn binary alloys and Cu,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 2859–2865, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. McCormack and S. Jin, “New, lead-free solders,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 635–640, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Chen, S. Cheng, S. Wu, and K. Lin, “Effects of small additions of Ag, Al, and Ga on the structure and properties of the Sn-9Zn eutectic alloy,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 416, no. 1-2, pp. 98–105, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Kim, K. Kim, C. Hwang, and K. Suganuma, “Effect of composition and cooling rate on microstructure and tensile properties of Sn-Zn-Bi alloys,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 352, no. 1-2, pp. 237–245, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Date, K. N. Tu, T. Shoji, M. Fujiyoshi, and K. Sato, “Interfacial reactions and impact reliability of Sn-Zn solder joints on Cu or electroless Au/Ni(P) bond-pads,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2887–2896, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Hirose, H. Yanagawa, E. Ide, and K. F. Kobayashi, “Joint strength and interfacial microstructure between Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn-Bi solders and Cu substrate,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 5, no. 1-2, pp. 267–276, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. A. El-Daly, Y. Swilem, M. H. Makled, M. G. El-Shaarawy, and A. M. Abdraboh, “Thermal and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn-Bi lead-free solder alloys,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 484, no. 1-2, pp. 134–142, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Wang, T. Chin, C. Yang, S. Chen, and C. Chuang, “Pb-free solder-alloy based on Sn-Zn-Bi with the addition of germanium,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 497, no. 1-2, pp. 428–431, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Lin, L. Wen, and T. Liu, “The microstructures of the Sn-Zn-Al solder alloys,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 97–105, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Lin and Y. Wang, “Wetting interaction of Pb-free Sn-Zn-Al solders on metal plated substrate,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1205–1210, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Lin and L. Wen, “The wetting of copper by Al-Zn-Sn solders,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5–8, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Lin and T. Liu, “High-temperature oxidation of a Sn-Zn-Al solder,” Oxidation of Metals, vol. 50, no. 3-4, pp. 255–267, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Lin and T. Liu, “The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Pb-free Al-Zn-Sn solders in NaCl solution,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 171–176, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Lin and C. Shih, “Wetting interaction between Sn-Zn-Ag solders and Cu,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. M. Song, G. F. Lan, T. S. Lui, and L. H. Chen, “Microstructure and tensile properties of Sn-9Zn-xAg lead-free solder alloys,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1047–1051, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. M. Song, T. S. Lui, G. F. Lan, and L. H. Chen, “Resonant vibration behavior of Sn-Zn-Ag solder alloys,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 379, no. 1-2, pp. 233–239, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Saad, A. Fawzy, and E. Shawky, “Effect of Ag addition on the creep characteristics of Sn-8.8 wt%Zn solder alloy,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 479, no. 1-2, pp. 844–850, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. X. Chen, A. Hu, M. Li, and D. Mao, “Study on the properties of Sn-9Zn-xCr lead-free solder,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 460, no. 1-2, pp. 478–484, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Lee, K. Kim, M. Inoue, J. Jiang, and K. Suganuma, “Effects of Ag and Cu addition on microstructural properties and oxidation resistance of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 454, no. 1-2, pp. 310–320, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. M. L. Wu, D. Q. Yu, C. M. T. Law, and L. Wang, “The properties of Sn-9Zn lead-free solder alloys doped with trace rare earth elements,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 921–927, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. M. L. Wu, C. M. T. Law, D. Q. Yu, and L. Wang, “The wettability and microstructure of Sn-Zn-RE alloys,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 63–69, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. M. L. Wu, D. Q. Yu, C. M. T. Law, and L. Wang, “Properties of lead-free solder alloys with rare earth element additions,” Materials Science and Engineering R, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1–44, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Chen and K. Lin, “The microstructures and mechanical properties of the Sn-Zn-Ag-Al-Ga solder alloys—the effect of Ag,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 861–867, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Hansen, Constitution of Binary Alloys, McGraw-Hill Book, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1958.
  30. S. K. Bhattacharya and D. F. Baldwin, “Gallium alloy breakthrough for via-filling application,” Advanced Packaging, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 61–64, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  31. J. Dutkiewicz, Z. Moser, L. Zabdyr et al., “The Ga-Zn (gallium-zinc) system,” Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 77–82, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. J. Anderson and I. Ansara, “The Ga-Sn (gallium-tin) system,” Journal of Phase Equilibria, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 181–189, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. A. El-Daly, Y. Swilem, and A. E. Hammad, “Creep properties of Sn-Sb based lead-free solder alloys,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 471, no. 1-2, pp. 98–104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus