Table 2: List of some notable chemical characterizations of BC.

CharacterizationDeterminationResults and remarksReferences

Elemental analysisC, H, O, S, and N associated ratiosH/C, O/C, and N associated ratios are used to determine the degree of aromaticity and maturation[56, 60, 61]
BETSurface area, pore structures, average pore diameter, pore volume, and average pores of BC1057 m2g−1; macroporosity and microporosity; 5.2 nm;
0.24 mLg−1; 3.3 nm
[63, 125]
Boehm titrationAcidic and basic functional groupsFunctional groups determined include carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic[45, 65]
FTIR/FTISChanges that occur in BC preparations as well as chemical functional groups present on the original BCChanges include dehydration, pyrolysis, graphene nucleation, and finally carbonization; O–H (3600–3100 cm−1), C=C and C=O stretching (1740–1600 cm−1),
C–O–C symmetric stretching (1097 cm−1), –COOMe (1400–1500 cm−1), and so on
[6668]
CECMeasure of the surface charge in soil or BCAt aging 278 to 518 mmolckg−1,
10.2 to 69.2 mmolckg−1, at neutral pH and 16.2 ± 6.0 and 21.0 ± 17.2 mmolckg−1 for BC produced at 400 and 600°C
[19, 69]