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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 746252, 13 pages
Review Article

Perspectives for Titanium-Derived Fillers Usage on Denture Base Composite Construction: A Review Article

1Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Dental Technology, College of Medical Technology, P.O. Box 1458, Misurata, Libya

Received 8 February 2014; Revised 15 June 2014; Accepted 15 June 2014; Published 2 July 2014

Academic Editor: Krishnan Jayaraman

Copyright © 2014 Nidal W. Elshereksi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is an extensively used material in dentistry because of its aesthetics, processability, and reparability. However, PMMA is still far from being ideal in fulfilling the mechanical requirements of prosthesis. PMMA-based denture base polymers exhibit low fracture resistance and radiopacity behavior. Efforts to improve the mechanical and radiopacity properties of denture base materials through inclusion of silica-based fillers are ongoing. Although silane-treated siliceous fillers are commonly used, they are not sufficiently strong. They also exhibit cracks, which either cut through the glass fillers or propagate around the filler particles. This defect occurs when the dental composites are placed in aqueous oral environment because of the hydrolytic degradation of silica-based fillers and silane-coupling agents. The clinical problem of using silanes in adhesion promotion is bond degradation over time in oral environment. In addition, silanes do not bond effectively to nonsilica-based dental restorative materials. This review presents titanium-derived fillers as alternatives to siliceous fillers. Titanate-coupling agents are found to be effective couplers in treating Ti-based fillers because of their chemical compatibility and relatively high stability in aqueous environment.