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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 639028, 16 pages
Review Article

Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Ag-Cu-X Lead-Free Solder Joints in Electronic Packaging

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China

Received 6 October 2014; Accepted 23 November 2014

Academic Editor: Hossein Moayedi

Copyright © 2015 Lei Sun and Liang Zhang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


SnAgCu solder alloys were considered as one of the most popular lead-free solders because of its good reliability and mechanical properties. However, there are also many problems that need to be solved for the SnAgCu solders, such as high melting point and poor wettability. In order to overcome these shortcomings, and further enhance the properties of SnAgCu solders, many researchers choose to add a series of alloying elements (In, Ti, Fe, Zn, Bi, Ni, Sb, Ga, Al, and rare earth) and nanoparticles to the SnAgCu solders. In this paper, the work of SnAgCu lead-free solders containing alloying elements and nanoparticles was reviewed, and the effects of alloying elements and nanoparticles on the melting temperature, wettability, mechanical properties, hardness properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds, and whiskers were discussed.